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      A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia

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          The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria.


          This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011).


          The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0).


          Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome.

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          Subtherapeutic initial β-lactam concentrations in select critically ill patients: association between augmented renal clearance and low trough drug concentrations.

          β-Lactams are routinely used as empirical therapy in critical illness, with extended concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the infecting organism required for effective treatment. Changes in renal function in this setting can significantly impact the probability of achieving such targets. Analysis was made of trough plasma drug concentrations obtained via therapeutic drug monitoring, compared with renal function, in critically ill patients receiving empirical β-lactam therapy. Drug concentrations were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and corrected for protein binding. Therapeutic levels were defined as greater than or equal to MIC and greater than or equal to four times MIC (maximum bacterial eradication), respectively. Renal function was assessed by means of an 8-h creatinine clearance (CLCR). Fifty-two concurrent trough concentrations and CLCR measures were used in analysis. Piperacillin was the most frequent β-lactam prescribed (48%), whereas empirical cover and Staphylococcus species were the most common indications for therapy (62%). Most patients were mechanically ventilated on the day of study (85%), although only 25% were receiving vasopressors. In only 58% (n = 30) was the trough drug concentration greater than or equal to MIC, falling to 31% (n = 16) when using four times MIC as the target. CLCR values ≥ 130 mL/min/1.73 m2 were associated with trough concentrations less than MIC in 82% (P < .001) and less than four times MIC in 72% (P < .001). CLCR remained a significant predictor of subtherapeutic concentrations in multivariate analysis. Elevated CLCR appears to be an important predictor of subtherapeutic β-lactam concentrations and suggests an important role in identifying such patients in the ICU.
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            Antibiotics in critically ill patients: a systematic review of the pharmacokinetics of β-lactams

            Introduction Several reports have shown marked heterogeneity of antibiotic pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients admitted to ICUs, which might potentially affect outcomes. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic (PD) parameter of the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics, that is, the time that its concentration is above the bacteria minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC), cannot be safely extrapolated from data derived from the PK of healthy volunteers. Methods We performed a full review of published studies addressing the PK of intravenous β-lactam antibiotics given to infected ICU patients. Study selection comprised a comprehensive bibliographic search of the PubMed database and bibliographic references in relevant reviews from January 1966 to December 2010. We selected only English-language articles reporting studies addressing β-lactam antibiotics that had been described in at least five previously published studies. Studies of the PK of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy were excluded. Results A total of 57 studies addressing six different β-lactam antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem, piperacillin, cefpirome, cefepime and ceftazidime) were selected. Significant PK heterogeneity was noted, with a broad, more than twofold variation both of volume of distribution and of drug clearance (Cl). The correlation of antibiotic Cl with creatinine clearance was usually reported. Consequently, in ICU patients, β-lactam antibiotic half-life and T > MIC were virtually unpredictable, especially in those patients with normal renal function. A better PD profile was usually obtained by prolonged or even continuous infusion. Tissue penetration was also found to be compromised in critically ill patients with septic shock. Conclusions The PK of β-lactam antibiotics are heterogeneous and largely unpredictable in ICU patients. Consequently, the dosing of antibiotics should be supported by PK concepts, including data derived from studies of the PK of ICU patients and therapeutic drug monitoring.
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              Meropenem dosing in critically ill patients with sepsis and without renal dysfunction: intermittent bolus versus continuous administration? Monte Carlo dosing simulations and subcutaneous tissue distribution.

              To compare the plasma and subcutaneous tissue concentration-time profiles of meropenem administered by intermittent bolus dosing or continuous infusion to critically ill patients with sepsis and without renal dysfunction, and to use population pharmacokinetic modelling and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) against Gram-negative pathogens likely to be encountered in critical care units. We randomized 10 patients with sepsis to receive meropenem by intermittent bolus administration (n = 5; 1 g 8 hourly) or an equal dose administered by continuous infusion (n = 5). Serial subcutaneous tissue concentrations were determined using microdialysis and compared with plasma data for first-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of plasma data and Monte Carlo simulations were then undertaken with NONMEM. It was found that continuous infusion maintains higher median trough concentrations, in both plasma (intermittent bolus 0 versus infusion 7 mg/L) and subcutaneous tissue (0 versus 4 mg/L). All simulated intermittent bolus, extended and continuous infusion dosing achieved 100% of pharmacodynamic targets against most Gram-negative pathogens. Superior obtainment of pharmacodynamic targets was achieved using administration by extended or continuous infusion against less susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. This is the first study to compare the relative concentration-time data of bolus and continuous administration of meropenem at the subcutaneous tissue and plasma levels. We found that the administration of meropenem by continuous infusion maintains higher concentrations in subcutaneous tissue and plasma than by intermittent bolus dosing. Administration by extended or continuous infusion will achieve superior CFR against less-susceptible organisms in patients without renal dysfunction.

                Author and article information

                Crit Care
                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central
                13 November 2012
                : 16
                : 6
                : R218
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8052, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
                [2 ]Service de Réanimation Médicale, Institut de Cardiologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47-83 boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France
                [3 ]Centre Hospitalier De Limoges, Hospital Dupuytren 02 Ave, Martin Luther King 87000, Limoges, France
                [4 ]Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and Division Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, 7400 Merton Minter Blvd. (11c6), San Antonio, TX, 78229 USA
                [5 ]Janssen Research and Development, Turnhoutsewig 30, 2340, Beerse, Belguim
                [6 ]Janssen Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 1000 Route 202, Raritan, NJ, 08869 USA
                Copyright ©2012 Kollef et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Emergency medicine & Trauma


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