This study examines the neural lobe of the pituitary gland for the presence of receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and their possible involvement in the regulation of neurosecretion. The presence of PACAP receptors of type I was revealed in the neural lobe, as well as in anterior and intermediate lobes, by means of RT-PCR amplification using selective oligonucleotide pairs of primers. They appeared to be expressed in the tissues as a short form together with an isoform of heavier molecular weight. Activation of receptors in the presence of PACAP stimulated both formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in neural lobes, in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximum (EC50) values of 1.0 ± 0.2 × 10<sup>–9</sup> M and 1.4 ± 0.3 × 10<sup>–8</sup> M, respectively. Parallel with AVP, PACAP also stimulated oxytocin (OXT) output, with an EC50 value of 0.6 ± 0.1 × 10<sup>–8</sup> M. In an attempt to localize receptors on cells (mainly astrocyte-like glials or pituicytes) and/or on nerve fibers of the gland, we used cultures of neural lobe cells and explants (in which nerve fibers undergo degeneration), as well as isolated nerve endings. In both cells and nerve terminals, PACAP enhanced accumulation of cAMP, while it triggered AVP secretion from the latter. The stimulatory effect of PACAP on both AVP and OXT release was mimicked by dbcAMP and blocked by H89, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. We conclude that in the neural lobe, PACAP receptors are localized on both nerve terminals and pituicytes, which participate in the modulation of secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones in an interactive way and mainly through the cAMP signalling route.