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      MicroRNAs: Role in hepatitis C virus pathogenesis

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          Abstract

          Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health burden with an estimated 170–200 million peoples chronically infected worldwide. HCV infection remains as an independent risk factor for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and a major reason for liver transplantation. Discovery of direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs have shown promising results with more than 90% success rate in clearing the HCV RNA in patients, although long-term consequences remain to be evaluated. microRNAs (miRNAs) are important players in establishment of HCV infection and target crucial host cellular factors needed for productive HCV replication and augmented cell growth. Altered expression of miRNAs is involved in the pathogenesis associated with HCV infection by controlling signaling pathways such as immune response, proliferation and apoptosis. miRNA is emerging as a means of communication between various cell types inside the liver. There is likely possibility of developing circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease progression and can also serve as diagnostic tool with potential of early therapeutic intervention in HCV associated end stage liver disease. This review focuses on recent studies highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in HCV life cycle and their coordinated regulation in HCV mediated liver disease progression.

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          Most cited references77

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          Switching from repression to activation: microRNAs can up-regulate translation.

          AU-rich elements (AREs) and microRNA target sites are conserved sequences in messenger RNA (mRNA) 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) that control gene expression posttranscriptionally. Upon cell cycle arrest, the ARE in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA is transformed into a translation activation signal, recruiting Argonaute (AGO) and fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1), factors associated with micro-ribonucleoproteins (microRNPs). We show that human microRNA miR369-3 directs association of these proteins with the AREs to activate translation. Furthermore, we document that two well-studied microRNAs-Let-7 and the synthetic microRNA miRcxcr4-likewise induce translation up-regulation of target mRNAs on cell cycle arrest, yet they repress translation in proliferating cells. Thus, activation is a common function of microRNPs on cell cycle arrest. We propose that translation regulation by microRNPs oscillates between repression and activation during the cell cycle.
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            MicroRNA-10a binds the 5'UTR of ribosomal protein mRNAs and enhances their translation.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNAs affect a variety of signaling pathways, and impaired miRNA regulation may contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases. Here we show that miRNA miR-10a interacts with the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins to enhance their translation. miR-10a alleviates translational repression of the ribosomal protein mRNAs during amino acid starvation and is required for their translational induction following anisomycin treatment or overexpression of RAS. We show that miR-10a binds immediately downstream of the regulatory 5'TOP motif and that the 5'TOP regulatory complex and miR-10a are functionally interconnected. The results show that miR-10a may positively control global protein synthesis via the stimulation of ribosomal protein mRNA translation and ribosome biogenesis and hereby affect the ability of cells to undergo transformation.
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              Identification and consequences of miRNA-target interactions--beyond repression of gene expression.

              Comparative genomics analyses and high-throughput experimental studies indicate that a microRNA (miRNA) binds to hundreds of sites across the transcriptome. Although the knockout of components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway has profound phenotypic consequences, most predicted miRNA targets undergo small changes at the mRNA and protein levels when the expression of the miRNA is perturbed. Alternatively, miRNAs can establish thresholds in and increase the coherence of the expression of their target genes, as well as reduce the cell-to-cell variability in target gene expression. Here, we review the recent progress in identifying miRNA targets and the emerging paradigms of how miRNAs shape the dynamics of target gene expression.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                12 January 2015
                March 2015
                12 January 2015
                : 2
                : 1
                : 35-45
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA
                [b ]Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, DRC 207, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Tel.: +1 314 977 7822; fax: +1 314 771 3816. rayrb@ 123456slu.edu
                Article
                S2352-3042(15)00006-9
                10.1016/j.gendis.2015.01.001
                4431773
                25984557
                eeb84a81-ed1d-4a6c-9d5c-d7f8e0e2c24d
                Copyright © 2015, Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 3 December 2014
                : 1 January 2015
                Categories
                Article

                circulatory mirnas,hcv,interferon signaling,liver disease,microrna

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