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      Community engagement in the Faculty of Health Science: A concept analysis


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          Community engagement has been given different interpretations by scholars and organisations; in addition, current scientific literature has not reached a consensus on how it is defined. This difference in conceptualisation may lead to confusion regarding the meaning. The researcher observed that academic staff from the Faculty of Health Science at an institution of higher education in Namibia are not certain of what counts as community engagement. This has led to some activities from the faculty being cancelled from the institutional review reports as they were not recognised as community engagement.


          The aim of this article is to describe the concept analysis of community engagement.


          the study took place at a faculty of health science at a university in Namibia.


          Concept analysis was done in accordance with the eight steps of the Walker and Avant model. A literature search was conducted to capture all potential definitions and uses of community engagement. A total of 225 definitions and uses of community engagement were recorded and used in the concept analysis. A list of definitions and uses of the concept of community engagement were documented with their citations, in a table with three columns. The first column (analysis) consisted of the identified definitions and uses of community engagement from the relevant literature. The second column (synthesis) consisted of reduced statements of the content presented in the first column. The third column (derivation) consisted of the final reduction into categories and connotations derived from the second column.


          Three broad categories were revealed as findings: (1) the antecedents of community engagement, which included community challenges, health inequalities, societal needs and the need for a social responsive approach in education, research and services; (2) a three-phase process of community engagement; and (3) the outcomes of community engagement. A theoretical definition and a conceptual map for the concept of community engagement were drawn from the findings.


          The results of the concept analysis of community engagement will be used to develop strategies for its facilitation in the Faculty of Health Science.

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          Most cited references54

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          Measuring health inequalities in the context of sustainable development goals

          Abstract Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development promotes the improvement of health equity, which entails ongoing monitoring of health inequalities. The World Health Organization has developed a multistep approach to health inequality monitoring consisting of: (i) determining the scope of monitoring; (ii) obtaining data; (iii) analysing data; (iv) reporting results; and (v) implementing changes. Technical considerations at each step have implications for the results and conclusions of monitoring and subsequent remedial actions. This paper presents some technical considerations for developing or strengthening health inequality monitoring, with the aim of encouraging more robust, systematic and transparent practices. We discuss key aspects of measuring health inequalities that are relevant to steps (i) and (iii). We highlight considerations related to the selection, measurement and categorization of dimensions of health inequality, as well as disaggregation of health data and calculation of summary measures of inequality. Inequality monitoring is linked to health and non-health aspects of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, and strong health inequality monitoring practices can help to inform equity-oriented policy directives.
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            Understanding community engagement in end-of-life care: developing conceptual clarity

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              Enablers and Barriers to Community Engagement in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Literature Review

              Public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) all too often focusses only on institutional capabilities, including their technical expertise and political influence, while overlooking community capabilities. However, the success of institutional emergency preparedness plans depends upon communities and institutions working together to ensure successful anticipation, response and recovery. Broader community engagement is therefore recommended worldwide. This literature review was carried out to identify enablers and barriers to community and institutional synergies in emergency preparedness. Searches were undertaken across bibliographic databases and grey literature sources. The literature identified was qualitative in nature. A qualitative, ‘best fit’ framework approach using a pre-existing framework was used to analyse the literature, whereby themes were added and changed as analysis progressed. A working definition of community was identified, based on a ‘whole community’ approach, inclusive of the whole multitude of stakeholders including community residents and emergency management staff. Given the diversity in community make-up, the types of emergencies that could be faced, the socio-economic, environmental and political range of communities, there are no set practices that will be effective for all communities. The most effective way of engaging communities in emergency preparedness is context-dependent and the review did draw out some important key messages for institutions to consider.

                Author and article information

                Health SA
                Health SA
                Health SA Gesondheid
                26 November 2020
                : 25
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Vistolina Nuuyoma, vistolina.nuuyoma@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2020. The Authors

                Licensee: AOSIS. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

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                concept analysis,community engagement,community service,higher education,health science


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