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      Treatment of multiple myeloma with the immunostimulatory SLAMF7 antibody elotuzumab

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          Abstract

          Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the extracellular domain of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7) highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells. Upon binding to myeloma cells, elotuzumab exerts its cytotoxic effects through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, the antibody-induced selective lysis of tumor cells by activated natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, elotuzumab has been shown to directly induce NK-cell activation by binding to SLAMF7 expressed on NK cells and to indirectly modulate T-cell function by promoting the secretion of cytokines from NK cells. In combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone, elotuzumab has shown remarkable effects in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. In these patients, the risk of disease progression or death was significantly reduced by 30% on elotuzumab. Currently, elotuzumab is being evaluated in various myeloma patient populations and combination regimens. This review discusses the use of elotuzumab as an antimultiple myeloma agent and provides an update on the results of recent clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of elotuzumab for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

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          Most cited references28

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          CS1, a potential new therapeutic antibody target for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

          We generated a humanized antibody, HuLuc63, which specifically targets CS1 (CCND3 subset 1, CRACC, and SLAMF7), a cell surface glycoprotein not previously associated with multiple myeloma. To explore the therapeutic potential of HuLuc63 in multiple myeloma, we examined in detail the expression profile of CS1, the binding properties of HuLuc63 to normal and malignant cells, and the antimyeloma activity of HuLuc63 in preclinical models. CS1 was analyzed by gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry of multiple myeloma samples and numerous normal tissues. HuLuc63-mediated antimyeloma activity was tested in vitro in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays and in vivo using the human OPM2 xenograft model in mice. CS1 mRNA was expressed in >90% of 532 multiple myeloma cases, regardless of cytogenetic abnormalities. Anti-CS1 antibody staining of tissues showed strong staining of myeloma cells in all plasmacytomas and bone marrow biopsies. Flow cytometric analysis of patient samples using HuLuc63 showed specific staining of CD138+ myeloma cells, natural killer (NK), NK-like T cells, and CD8+ T cells, with no binding detected on hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells. HuLuc63 exhibited significant in vitro ADCC using primary myeloma cells as targets and both allogeneic and autologous NK cells as effectors. HuLuc63 exerted significant in vivo antitumor activity, which depended on efficient Fc-CD16 interaction as well as the presence of NK cells in the mice. These results suggest that HuLuc63 eliminates myeloma cells, at least in part, via NK-mediated ADCC and shows the therapeutic potential of targeting CS1 with HuLuc63 for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
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            CS1-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-Engineered Natural Killer Cells Enhance In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-tumor Activity Against Human Multiple Myeloma

            Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells have been demonstrated successful in the clinic to treat B-lymphoid malignancies. However, the potential utility of antigen-specific CAR-engineered natural killer (NK) cells to treat MM has not been explored. In this study, we determined whether CS1, a surface protein that is highly expressed on MM cells, can be targeted by CAR NK cells to treat MM. We successfully generated a viral construct of a CS1-specific CAR and expressed it in human NK cells. In vitro, CS1-CAR NK cells displayed enhanced MM cytolysis and IFN-γ production, and showed a specific CS1-dependent recognition of MM cells. Ex vivo, CS1-CAR NK cells also showed similarly enhanced activities when responding to primary MM tumor cells. More importantly, in an aggressive orthotopic MM xenograft mouse model, adoptive transfer of NK-92 cells expressing CS1-CAR efficiently suppressed the growth of human IM9 MM cells and also significantly prolonged mouse survival. Thus, CS1 represents a viable target for CAR-expressing immune cells, and autologous or allogeneic transplantation of CS1-specific CAR NK cells may be a promising strategy to treat MM.
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              Anti-CS1 humanized monoclonal antibody HuLuc63 inhibits myeloma cell adhesion and induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in the bone marrow milieu.

              Currently, no approved monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies exist for human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we characterized cell surface CS1 as a novel MM antigen and further investigated the potential therapeutic utility of HuLuc63, a humanized anti-CS1 mAb, for treating human MM. CS1 mRNA and protein was highly expressed in CD138-purified primary tumor cells from the majority of MM patients (more than 97%) with low levels of circulating CS1 detectable in MM patient sera, but not in healthy donors. CS1 was expressed at adhesion-promoting uropod membranes of polarized MM cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to CS1 inhibited MM cell adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). HuLuc63 inhibited MM cell binding to BMSCs and induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against MM cells in dose-dependent and CS1-specific manners. HuLuc63 triggered autologous ADCC against primary MM cells resistant to conventional or novel therapies, including bortezomib and HSP90 inhibitor; and pretreatment with conventional or novel anti-MM drugs markedly enhanced HuLuc63-induced MM cell lysis. Administration of HuLuc63 significantly induces tumor regression in multiple xenograft models of human MM. These results thus define the functional significance of CS1 in MM and provide the preclinical rationale for testing HuLuc63 in clinical trials, either alone or in combination.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Ther Adv Hematol
                Ther Adv Hematol
                TAH
                sptah
                Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                2040-6207
                2040-6215
                15 July 2016
                October 2016
                : 7
                : 5
                : 288-301
                Affiliations
                [1-2040620716657993]Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, University of Wuerzburg, Oberduerrbacher Straße 6, Haus A3, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
                [2-2040620716657993]University Hospital Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Germany
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1177_2040620716657993
                10.1177/2040620716657993
                5026292
                27695618
                eec00d35-793c-406b-9275-954e89c909da
                © The Author(s), 2016

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                History
                Categories
                Reviews

                Hematology
                antibody-based immunotherapy,cs1,elotuzumab,multiple myeloma,slamf7
                Hematology
                antibody-based immunotherapy, cs1, elotuzumab, multiple myeloma, slamf7

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