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      Exploring a Chemotactic Role for EVs from Progenitor Cell Populations of Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth for Promoting Migration of Naïve BMSCs in Bone Repair Process

      , 1 , 2 , 1 , 1

      Stem Cells International

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Mobilization of naïve bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) is crucial to desired bone regeneration in both orthopedic and dental contexts. In such conditions, mesenchymal progenitor cell populations from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) present advantageous multipotent properties with easy accessibility which makes them a good candidate in both bone and periodontal tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a functional membranous structure which could participate in multiple cell interactions and imitate the biological functions of their parenting cells largely. To assess their ability to mobilize naïve BMSCs in the bone repair process, Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) were performed to illustrate the composition and functional contents of EV samples derived from SHEDs with different culturing time (24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). Afterwards, the Boyden chamber assay was performed to compare their capacity for mobilizing naïve BMSCs. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post hoc Turkey test was performed for statistical analysis. SHEDs-derived EVs collected from 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h time points, namely, EV24, EV48, and EV72, were mainly secreted as exosomes and tended to reform into smaller size as a result of sonication indicated by NTA results. Moreover, different EV groups were found to be abundant with multiple growth factors including transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF- β1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) given the detections through ELISA. Boyden chamber assays implied the migratory efficiency of BMSCs driven by EVs at varying concentrations. However, the results showed that migration of BMSCs driven by different EV groups was not statistically significant even with chemotactic factors contained ( P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that EVs derived from SHEDs are secreted in functional forms and present a potential of mobilizing naïve BMSCs, which may propose their relevance in assisting bone regeneration.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Shedding light on the cell biology of extracellular vesicles

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            Paracrine mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy: current status and perspectives.

            Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of a few stem cell types to be applied in clinical practice as therapeutic agents for immunomodulation and ischemic tissue repair. In addition to their multipotent differentiation potential, a strong paracrine capacity has been proposed as the principal mechanism that contributes to tissue repair. Apart from cytokine/chemokine secretion, MSCs also display a strong capacity for mitochondrial transfer and microvesicle (exosomes) secretion in response to injury with subsequent promotion of tissue regeneration. These unique properties of MSCs make them an invaluable cell type to repair damaged tissues/organs. Although MSCs offer great promise in the treatment of degenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders, there are still many challenges to overcome prior to their widespread clinical application. Particularly, their in-depth paracrine mechanisms remain a matter for debate and exploration. This review will highlight the discovery of the paracrine mechanism of MSCs, regulation of the paracrine biology of MSCs, important paracrine factors of MSCs in modulation of tissue repair, exosome and mitochondrial transfer for tissue repair, and the future perspective for MSC-based therapy.
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              Extracellular Vesicles in Cancer: Cell-to-Cell Mediators of Metastasis.

              Tumor-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) are critical mediators of intercellular communication between tumor cells and stromal cells in local and distant microenvironments. Accordingly, EVs play an essential role in both primary tumor growth and metastatic evolution. EVs orchestrate multiple systemic pathophysiological processes, such as coagulation, vascular leakiness, and reprogramming of stromal recipient cells to support pre-metastatic niche formation and subsequent metastasis. Clinically, EVs may be biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer progression, particularly for predicting and preventing future metastatic development.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells Int
                sci
                Stem Cells International
                Hindawi
                1687-966X
                1687-9678
                2021
                17 March 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                1Department of Oral and Biomedical Sciences, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
                2Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Francisco J. Rodr guez Lozano

                Article
                10.1155/2021/6681771
                7990532
                Copyright © 2021 Lin Luo et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine

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