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      Exosomes from N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma cells induce migration and confer chemoresistance to non-N-Myc amplified cells: implications of intra-tumour heterogeneity

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          Neuroblastoma accounts for 15% of childhood cancer mortality. Amplification of the oncogene N-Myc is a well-established poor prognostic marker for neuroblastoma. Whilst N-Myc amplification status strongly correlates with higher tumour aggression and resistance to treatment, the role of N-Myc in the aggressiveness of the disease is poorly understood. Exosomes are released by many cell types including cancer cells and are implicated as key mediators in cell-cell communication via the transfer of molecular cargo. Hence, characterising the exosomal protein components from N-Myc amplified and non-amplified neuroblastoma cells will improve our understanding on their role in the progression of neuroblastoma. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis of exosomes isolated from cells with varying N-Myc amplification status was performed. Label-free quantitative proteomic profiling revealed 968 proteins that are differentially abundant in exosomes released by the neuroblastoma cells. Gene ontology-based analysis highlighted the enrichment of proteins involved in cell communication and signal transduction in N-Myc amplified exosomes. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with N-Myc amplified SK-N-BE2 cell-derived exosomes increased the migratory potential, colony forming abilities and conferred resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis. Incubation of exosomes from N-Myc knocked down SK-N-BE2 cells abolished the transfer of resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that exosomes could play a pivotal role in N-Myc-driven aggressive neuroblastoma and transfer of chemoresistance between cells.

          Abbreviations: RNA = ribonucleic acid; DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; FCS = foetal calf serum; NTA = nanoparticle tracking analysis; LC-MS = liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry; KD = knockdown; LTQ = linear trap quadropole; TEM = transmission electron microscopy

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          Most cited references 23

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          Recent advances in neuroblastoma.

           J Maris,  Anna Maris (2010)
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            FunRich: An open access standalone functional enrichment and interaction network analysis tool.

            As high-throughput techniques including proteomics become more accessible to individual laboratories, there is an urgent need for a user-friendly bioinformatics analysis system. Here, we describe FunRich, an open access, standalone functional enrichment and network analysis tool. FunRich is designed to be used by biologists with minimal or no support from computational and database experts. Using FunRich, users can perform functional enrichment analysis on background databases that are integrated from heterogeneous genomic and proteomic resources (>1.5 million annotations). Besides default human specific FunRich database, users can download data from the UniProt database, which currently supports 20 different taxonomies against which enrichment analysis can be performed. Moreover, the users can build their own custom databases and perform the enrichment analysis irrespective of organism. In addition to proteomics datasets, the custom database allows for the tool to be used for genomics, lipidomics and metabolomics datasets. Thus, FunRich allows for complete database customization and thereby permits for the tool to be exploited as a skeleton for enrichment analysis irrespective of the data type or organism used. FunRich (http://www.funrich.org) is user-friendly and provides graphical representation (Venn, pie charts, bar graphs, column, heatmap and doughnuts) of the data with customizable font, scale and color (publication quality).
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              The mTOR Signalling Pathway in Human Cancer

              The conserved serine/threonine kinase mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin), a downstream effector of the PI3K/AKT pathway, forms two distinct multiprotein complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 is sensitive to rapamycin, activates S6K1 and 4EBP1, which are involved in mRNA translation. It is activated by diverse stimuli, such as growth factors, nutrients, energy and stress signals, and essential signalling pathways, such as PI3K, MAPK and AMPK, in order to control cell growth, proliferation and survival. mTORC2 is considered resistant to rapamycin and is generally insensitive to nutrients and energy signals. It activates PKC-α and AKT and regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Deregulation of multiple elements of the mTOR pathway (PI3K amplification/mutation, PTEN loss of function, AKT overexpression, and S6K1, 4EBP1 and eIF4E overexpression) has been reported in many types of cancers, particularly in melanoma, where alterations in major components of the mTOR pathway were reported to have significant effects on tumour progression. Therefore, mTOR is an appealing therapeutic target and mTOR inhibitors, including the rapamycin analogues deforolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, are submitted to clinical trials for treating multiple cancers, alone or in combination with inhibitors of other pathways. Importantly, temsirolimus and everolimus were recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, PNET and giant cell astrocytoma. Small molecules that inhibit mTOR kinase activity and dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitors are also being developed. In this review, we aim to survey relevant research, the molecular mechanisms of signalling, including upstream activation and downstream effectors, and the role of mTOR in cancer, mainly in melanoma.

                Author and article information

                J Extracell Vesicles
                J Extracell Vesicles
                Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
                Taylor & Francis
                11 April 2019
                : 8
                : 1
                [a ]Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University , Melbourne, Australia
                [b ]The Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne , Parkville, Australia
                Author notes
                CONTACT Suresh Mathivanan S.Mathivanan@ 123456latrobe.edu.au Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University , Bundoora, Victoria3086, Australia
                © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 34, Pages: 11
                Funded by: Australian Research Council 10.13039/501100000923
                Award ID: DP130100535
                Funded by: Australian Research Council FT
                Award ID: FT180100333
                SM is supported by Australian Research Council (DP130100535), (DP170102312), Australian Research Council FT (FT180100333) and Ramaciotti Establishment Grant. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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