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      GC-MS analysis and hepatoprotective activity of the n-hexane extract of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius leaves against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats

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          Abstract

          Context: In Egypt, the burden of liver diseases is exceptionally high.

          Objective: To investigate the components of the n-hexane extract of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Arn. (Leguminosae) and its hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

          Material and methods: TRACE GC ultra gas chromatogaphic spectrometry was used for extract analysis. Thirty albino rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each). Group 1 was the healthy control; Groups 2 and 3 were healthy treated groups (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively) for seven days. Group 4 was hepatotoxicity control (APAP intoxicated group). Groups 5 and 6 received APAP + extract 250 and APAP + extract 500, respectively.

          Results: Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of 36 components. Major compounds were α-tocopherol (18.23%), labda-8 (20)-13-dien-15-oic acid (13.15%), lupeol (11.93%), phytol (10.95%) and squalene (7.19%). In the acute oral toxicity study, the mortality rates and behavioural signs of toxicity were zero in all groups (doses from 0 to 5 g/kg b.w. of A. fraxinifolius). LD 50 was found to be greater than 5 g/kg of the extract. Only the high dose (500 mg/kg b.w.) of extract significantly alleviated the liver relative weight (4.01 ± 0.06) and biomarkers, as serum aspartate aminotransferase (62.87 ± 1.41), alanine aminotransferase (46.74 ± 1.45), alkaline phosphatase (65.96 ± 0.74), lipid profiles (180.39 ± 3.51), bilirubin profiles (2.30 ± 0.06) and hepatic lipid peroxidation (114.20 ± 2.06), and increased body weight (11.58 ± 0.20), serum protein profile (11.09 ± 0.46) and hepatic total antioxidant capacity (23.78 ± 0.66) in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

          Conclusion: Our study proves the antihepatotoxic/antioxidant efficacies of A. fraxinifolius hexane extract.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret reaction.

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            Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

            The analgesic acetaminophen causes a potentially fatal, hepatic centrilobular necrosis when taken in overdose. The initial phases of toxicity were described in Dr. Gillette's laboratory in the 1970s. These findings indicated that acetaminophen was metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes to a reactive metabolite that depleted glutathione (GSH) and covalently bound to protein. It was shown that repletion of GSH prevented the toxicity. This finding led to the development of the currently used antidote N-acetylcysteine. The reactive metabolite was subsequently identified to be N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). Although covalent binding has been shown to be an excellent correlate of toxicity, a number of other events have been shown to occur and are likely important in the initiation and repair of toxicity. Recent data have shown that nitrated tyrosine residues as well as acetaminophen adducts occur in the necrotic cells following toxic doses of acetaminophen. Nitrotyrosine was postulated to be mediated by peroxynitrite, a reactive nitrogen species formed by the very rapid reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide (NO). Peroxynitrite is normally detoxified by GSH, which is depleted in acetaminophen toxicity. NO synthesis (serum nitrate plus nitrite) was dramatically increased following acetaminophen. In inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout mice, acetaminophen did not increase NO synthesis or tyrosine nitration; however, histological evidence indicated no difference in toxicity. Acetaminophen did not cause hepatic lipid peroxidation in wild-type mice but did cause lipid peroxidation in iNOS knockout mice. These data suggest that NO may play a role in controlling lipid peroxidation and that reactive nitrogen/oxygen species may be important in toxicity. The source of the superoxide has not been identified, but our recent finding that NADPH oxidase knockout mice were equally sensitive to acetaminophen and had equal nitration of tyrosine suggests that the superoxide is not from the activation of Kupffer cells. It was postulated that NAPQI-mediated mitochondrial injury may be the source of the superoxide. In addition, the significance of cytokines and chemokines in the development of toxicity and repair processes has been demonstrated by several recent studies. IL-1beta is increased early in acetaminophen toxicity and may be important in iNOS induction. Other cytokines, such as IL-10, macrophage inhibitory protein-2 (MIP-2), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), appear to be involved in hepatocyte repair and the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines.
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              Assay for lipid peroxidation in animal tissueby thiobarbituric acid reaction

               H Ohkawa,  N Onishi,  K Yagi (1979)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharm Biol
                Pharm Biol
                IPHB
                iphb20
                Pharmaceutical Biology
                Taylor & Francis
                1388-0209
                1744-5116
                2017
                09 December 2016
                : 55
                : 1
                : 441-449
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Ain Shams University , Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt;
                [b ]Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University , Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt
                Author notes
                CONTACT Abdel Nasser Singab dean@ 123456pharma.asu.edu.eg Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University , 11566Cairo, Egypt
                Article
                1246575
                10.1080/13880209.2016.1246575
                6130506
                27937037
                © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 9, Words: 6970
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