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Surveillance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in high-risk individuals by using regional lung cancer mass screening

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      Background and objectivePatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at risk for lung cancer; the diseases have common etiologies, including cigarette smoking. We aimed to clarify the effectiveness of COPD detection using a regional mass-screening program for lung cancer.Materials and methodsA total of 7,067 residents of Togane, Chiba, Japan received lung cancer screening between May and July, 2011. We defined four groups of possible COPD candidates: group A (n=358), positive smoking history, positive chronic respiratory symptoms; group B (n=766), positive smoking history, positive lifestyle-related disease; group C (n=75), passive smoking history, positive chronic respiratory symptoms; and group D (n=301), passive smoking history, positive lifestyle-related disease. Candidates underwent on-site pulmonary function testing (PFT).ResultsThe criteria for COPD candidates were fulfilled in 1,686 of 7,067 individuals (23.9%); 1,500 participants underwent PFT (89%), and 171 (11.4%) were diagnosed with COPD. The overall COPD detection rate was 2.4%. The frequency of COPD was significantly higher in groups A and B than in groups C and D (P=0.048); however, the distribution of COPD grades was similar among the groups (P=0.372). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified male sex, age 60 years or greater, and positive smoking history as risk factors for COPD.ConclusionCOPD screening using a community-based lung cancer-screening program may be effective for disease detection. Individuals who are 60 years of age or older with a positive smoking history should undergo PFT to detect COPD.

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      Most cited references 23

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      Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary.

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the United States, and is projected to rank fifth in 2020 in burden of disease worldwide, according to a study published by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Yet, COPD remains relatively unknown or ignored by the public as well as public health and government officials. In 1998, in an effort to bring more attention to COPD, its management, and its prevention, a committed group of scientists encouraged the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the World Health Organization to form the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Among the important objectives of GOLD are to increase awareness of COPD and to help the millions of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely of it or its complications. The first step in the GOLD program was to prepare a consensus report, Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, published in 2001. The present, newly revised document follows the same format as the original consensus report, but has been updated to reflect the many publications on COPD that have appeared. GOLD national leaders, a network of international experts, have initiated investigations of the causes and prevalence of COPD in their countries, and developed innovative approaches for the dissemination and implementation of COPD management guidelines. We appreciate the enormous amount of work the GOLD national leaders have done on behalf of their patients with COPD. Despite the achievements in the 5 years since the GOLD report was originally published, considerable additional work is ahead of us if we are to control this major public health problem. The GOLD initiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of governments, public health officials, health care workers, and the general public, but a concerted effort by all involved in health care will be necessary.
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        The aim of this study was to quantify the global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by means of a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis. PubMed was searched for population-based prevalence estimates published during the period 1990-2004. Articles were included if they: 1) provided total population or sex-specific estimates for COPD, chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema; and 2) gave method details sufficiently clearly to establish the sampling strategy, approach to diagnosis and diagnostic criteria. Of 67 accepted articles, 62 unique entries yielded 101 overall prevalence estimates from 28 different counties. The pooled prevalence of COPD was 7.6% from 37 studies, of chronic bronchitis alone (38 studies) was 6.4% and of emphysema alone (eight studies) was 1.8%. The pooled prevalence from 26 spirometric estimates was 8.9%. The most common spirometric definitions used were those of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (13 estimates). There was significant heterogeneity, which was incompletely explained by subgroup analysis (e.g. age and smoking status). The prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults aged > or =40 yrs is approximately 9-10%. There are important regional gaps, and methodological differences hinder interpretation of the available data. The efforts of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and similar groups should help to standardise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence measurement.
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          Despite high smoking rates, few prevalence studies of COPD have been performed in Asia. The Nippon COPD Epidemiology (NICE) Study used spirometry to measure prevalence of airflow limitation in Japanese adults. Clinical, spirometric, and risk factor exposure data were collected on 2343 subjects aged > or = 40 years who were demographically similar to the Japanese population. Airflow limitation was defined according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (FEV1/FVC 70 years; P < 0.001). Of note, airflow limitation was also found in 5.8% of non-smokers and 4.6% of those younger than age 60 years. Only 9.4% of cases with airflow limitation reported a previous diagnosis of COPD. Prevalence of airflow limitation in Japan is higher than previously reported, suggesting a high degree of under-recognition of COPD. The high prevalence of smoking coupled with an aging population threatens to further increase the burden of COPD, highlighting the need for enhanced screening efforts and interventions of prevention and treatment.

            Author and article information

            Chiba Foundation for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Chiba, Japan
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Takehiko Fujisawa Chiba, Foundation for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 32-14 Shinminato, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-0002, Japan, Tel +81 43 246 0350, Fax +81 43 248 640, Email ta-fujisawa@
            Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
            Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
            International Journal of COPD
            International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
            Dove Medical Press
            23 June 2014
            : 9
            : 647-656
            © 2014 Sekine et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

            The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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