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      Measurement of the inelastic proton–proton cross-section at √ s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

      The ATLAS Collaboration 1 , 2

      Nature Communications

      Nature Publishing Group

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The dependence of the rate of proton–proton interactions on the centre-of-mass collision energy, √ s, is of fundamental importance for both hadron collider physics and particle astrophysics. The dependence cannot yet be calculated from first principles; therefore, experimental measurements are needed. Here we present the first measurement of the inelastic proton–proton interaction cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy, √ s, of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected by requiring hits on scintillation counters mounted in the forward region of the detector. An inelastic cross-section of 60.3±2.1 mb is measured for ξ>5×10 −6, where ξ is calculated from the invariant mass, M X , of hadrons selected using the largest rapidity gap in the event. For diffractive events, this corresponds to requiring at least one of the dissociation masses to be larger than 15.7 GeV.

          Abstract

          The measurement of the total cross-section of proton–proton collisions is of fundamental importance for particle physics. Here, the first measurement of the inelastic cross-section is presented for proton–proton collisions at an energy of 7 teraelectronvolts using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider.

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          Most cited references 1

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          Inelastic cross section for p-air collisions from air shower experiments and total cross section for p-p collisions up to sqrt s =24 TeV.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Nat Commun
            Nature Communications
            Nature Publishing Group
            2041-1723
            06 September 2011
            : 2
            : 463
            Affiliations
            [3 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Ankara University , Ankara;
            [4 ]simpleLAPP, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université de Savoie , Annecy-le-Vieux, France.
            [5 ]simpleHigh Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory , Argonne, IL, USA.
            [6 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Arizona , Tucson, AZ, USA.
            [7 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington , Arlington, TX, USA.
            [8 ]simplePhysics Department, University of Athens , Athens, Greece.
            [9 ]simplePhysics Department, National Technical University of Athens , Zografou, Greece.
            [10 ]simpleInstitute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences , Baku, Azerbaijan.
            [11 ]simpleInstitut de Física d'Altes Energies and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and ICREA , Barcelona, Spain.
            [12 ]simpleInstitute of Physics, University of Belgrade , Belgrade;
            [13 ]simpleDepartment for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen , Bergen, Norway.
            [14 ]simplePhysics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California , Berkeley, CA, USA.
            [15 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Humboldt University , Berlin, Germany.
            [16 ]simpleAlbert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics and Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern , Bern, Switzerland.
            [17 ]simpleSchool of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham , Birmingham, UK.
            [18 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Bogazici University , Istanbul;
            [19 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Bologna ;
            [20 ]simplePhysikalisches Institut, University of Bonn , Bonn, Germany.
            [21 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Boston University , Boston, MA, USA.
            [22 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Brandeis University , Waltham, MA, USA.
            [23 ]simpleUniversidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro COPPE/EE/IF , Rio de Janeiro;
            [24 ]simplePhysics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory , Upton, NY, USA.
            [25 ]simpleNational Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering , Bucharest;
            [26 ]simpleDepartamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires , Buenos Aires, Argentina.
            [27 ]simpleCavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge , Cambridge, UK.
            [28 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Carleton University , Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
            [29 ]simpleCERN , Geneva, Switzerland.
            [30 ]simpleEnrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago , Chicago, IL, USA.
            [31 ]simpleDepartamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catòlica de Chile , Santiago;
            [32 ]simpleInstitute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing;
            [33 ]simpleLaboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont Université and Université Blaise Pascal and CNRS/IN2P3 , Aubiere Cedex, France.
            [34 ]simpleNevis Laboratory, Columbia University , Irvington, NY, USA.
            [35 ]simpleNiels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen , Kobenhavn, Denmark.
            [36 ]simpleINFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza ;
            [37 ]simpleFaculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology , Krakow, Poland.
            [38 ]simpleThe Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences , Krakow, Poland.
            [39 ]simplePhysics Department, Southern Methodist University , Dallas, TX, USA.
            [40 ]simplePhysics Department, University of Texas at Dallas , Richardson, TX, USA.
            [41 ]simpleDESY , Hamburg and Zeuthen, Germany.
            [42 ]simpleInstitut für Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund , Dortmund, Germany.
            [43 ]simpleInstitut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technical University Dresden , Dresden, Germany.
            [44 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Duke University , Durham, NC, USA.
            [45 ]simpleSUPA—School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh, UK.
            [46 ]simpleFachhochschule Wiener Neustadt , Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
            [47 ]simpleINFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati , Frascati, Italy.
            [48 ]simpleFakultät für Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität , Freiburg i.Br., Germany.
            [49 ]simpleSection de Physique, Université de Genève , Geneva, Switzerland.
            [50 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Genova ;
            [51 ]simpleInstitute of Physics and HEP Institute, Georgian Academy of Sciences and Tbilisi State University , Tbilisi, Georgia.
            [52 ]simpleII Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen , Giessen, Germany.
            [53 ]simpleSUPA—School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK.
            [54 ]simpleII Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität , Göttingen, Germany.
            [55 ]simpleLaboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS/IN2P3 and Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble , Grenoble, France.
            [56 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Hampton University , Hampton, VA, USA.
            [57 ]simpleLaboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA, USA.
            [58 ]simpleKirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg , Heidelberg;
            [59 ]simpleFaculty of Science, Hiroshima University , Hiroshima, Japan.
            [60 ]simpleFaculty of Applied Information Science, Hiroshima Institute of Technology , Hiroshima, Japan.
            [61 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Indiana University , Bloomington, IN, USA.
            [62 ]simpleInstitut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität , Innsbruck, Austria.
            [63 ]simpleUniversity of Iowa , Iowa City, IA, USA.
            [64 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University , Ames, IA, USA.
            [65 ]simpleJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR Dubna , Dubna, Russia.
            [66 ]simpleKEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization , Tsukuba, Japan.
            [67 ]simpleGraduate School of Science, Kobe University , Kobe, Japan.
            [68 ]simpleFaculty of Science, Kyoto University , Kyoto, Japan.
            [69 ]simpleKyoto University of Education , Kyoto, Japan.
            [70 ]simpleInstituto de Física La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET , La Plata, Argentina.
            [71 ]simplePhysics Department, Lancaster University , Lancaster, UK.
            [72 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Lecce ;
            [73 ]simpleOliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool , Liverpool, UK.
            [74 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute and University of Ljubljana , Ljubljana, Slovenia.
            [75 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Queen Mary University of London , London, UK.
            [76 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London , Surrey, UK.
            [77 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University College London , London, UK.
            [78 ]simpleLaboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies, UPMC and Université Paris-Diderot and CNRS/IN2P3 , Paris, France.
            [79 ]simpleFysiska institutionen, Lunds universitet , Lund, Sweden.
            [80 ]simpleDepartamento de Fisica Teorica C-15, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid , Madrid, Spain.
            [81 ]simpleInstitut für Physik, Universität Mainz , Mainz, Germany.
            [82 ]simpleSchool of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester , Manchester, UK.
            [83 ]simpleCPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3 , Marseille, France.
            [84 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Massachusetts , Amherst, MA, USA.
            [85 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, McGill University , Montreal, Québec, Canada.
            [86 ]simpleSchool of Physics, University of Melbourne , Victoria, Australia.
            [87 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, The University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
            [88 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University , East Lansing, MI, USA.
            [89 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Milano ;
            [90 ]simpleB.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus , Minsk, Republic of Belarus.
            [91 ]simpleNational Scientific and Educational Centre for Particle and High Energy Physics , Minsk, Republic of Belarus.
            [92 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, MA, USA.
            [93 ]simpleGroup of Particle Physics, University of Montreal , Montreal, Québec, Canada.
            [94 ]simpleP.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences , Moscow, Russia.
            [95 ]simpleInstitute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) , Moscow, Russia.
            [96 ]simpleMoscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) , Moscow, Russia.
            [97 ]simpleSkobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University , Moscow, Russia.
            [98 ]simpleFakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München , München, Germany.
            [99 ]simpleMax-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) , München, Germany.
            [100 ]simpleNagasaki Institute of Applied Science , Nagasaki, Japan.
            [101 ]simpleGraduate School of Science, Nagoya University , Nagoya, Japan.
            [102 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Napoli ;
            [103 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico , Albuquerque, NM, USA.
            [104 ]simpleInstitute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef , Nijmegen, Netherlands.
            [105 ]simpleNikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics and University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam, Netherlands.
            [106 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Northern Illinois University , DeKalb, IL, USA.
            [107 ]simpleBudker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) , Novosibirsk, Russia.
            [108 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, New York University , New York, NY, USA.
            [109 ]simpleOhio State University , Columbus, OH, USA.
            [110 ]simpleFaculty of Science, Okayama University , Okayama, Japan.
            [111 ]simpleHomer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma , Norman, OK, USA.
            [112 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Oklahoma State University , Stillwater, OK, USA.
            [113 ]simplePalacký University, RCPTM , Olomouc, Czech Republic.
            [114 ]simpleCenter for High Energy Physics, University of Oregon , Eugene, OR, USA.
            [115 ]simpleLAL, Univ. Paris-Sud and CNRS/IN2P3 , Orsay, France.
            [116 ]simpleGraduate School of Science, Osaka University , Osaka, Japan.
            [117 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Oslo , Oslo, Norway.
            [118 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Oxford University , Oxford, UK.
            [119 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Pavia ;
            [120 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA, USA.
            [121 ]simplePetersburg Nuclear Physics Institute , Gatchina, Russia.
            [122 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Pisa ;
            [123 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
            [124 ]simpleLaboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas - LIP, Lisboa , Portugal;
            [125 ]simpleInstitute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic , Praha, Czech Republic.
            [126 ]simpleFaculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague , Praha, Czech Republic.
            [127 ]simpleCzech Technical University in Prague , Praha, Czech Republic.
            [128 ]simpleState Research Center Institute for High Energy Physics , Protvino, Russia.
            [129 ]simpleParticle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory , Didcot, UK.
            [130 ]simplePhysics Department, University of Regina , Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
            [131 ]simpleRitsumeikan University , Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.
            [132 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Roma I ;
            [133 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata ;
            [134 ]simpleINFN Sezione di Roma Tre ;
            [135 ]simpleFaculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Réseau Universitaire de Physique des Hautes Energies - Université Hassan II , Casablanca;
            [136 ]simpleDSM/IRFU (Institut de Recherches sur les Lois Fondamentales de l'Univers), CEA Saclay (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) , Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
            [137 ]simpleSanta Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California Santa Cruz , Santa Cruz, CA, USA.
            [138 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Washington , Seattle, WA, USA.
            [139 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield , Sheffield, UK.
            [140 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Shinshu University , Nagano, Japan.
            [141 ]simpleFachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen , Siegen, Germany.
            [142 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
            [143 ]simpleSLAC National Accelerator Laboratory , Stanford, CA, USA.
            [144 ]simpleFaculty of Mathematics, Physics & Informatics, Comenius University , Bratislava;
            [145 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Johannesburg , Johannesburg;
            [146 ]simpleDepartment of Physics , Stockholm University;
            [147 ]simplePhysics Department, Royal Institute of Technology , Stockholm, Sweden.
            [148 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University , Stony Brook, NY, USA.
            [149 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex , Brighton, UK.
            [150 ]simpleSchool of Physics, University of Sydney , Sydney, Australia.
            [151 ]simpleInstitute of Physics, Academia Sinica , Taipei, Taiwan.
            [152 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Technion: Israel Inst. of Technology , Haifa, Israel.
            [153 ]simpleRaymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv, Israel.
            [154 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki, Greece.
            [155 ]simpleInternational Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo , Tokyo, Japan.
            [156 ]simpleGraduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo Metropolitan University , Tokyo, Japan.
            [157 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology , Tokyo, Japan.
            [158 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Toronto , Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
            [159 ]simpleTRIUMF , Vancouver BC;
            [160 ]simpleInstitute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba , Ibaraki, Japan.
            [161 ]simpleScience and Technology Center, Tufts University , Medford, MA, USA.
            [162 ]simpleCentro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Narino , Bogota, Colombia.
            [163 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine , Irvine, CA, USA.
            [164 ]simpleINFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine ;
            [165 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Illinois , Urbana, IL, USA.
            [166 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Uppsala , Uppsala, Sweden.
            [167 ]simpleInstituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) and Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Departamento de Ingenierá Electrónica and Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), University of Valencia and CSIC , Valencia, Spain.
            [168 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of British Columbia , Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
            [169 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria , Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
            [170 ]simpleWaseda University , Tokyo, Japan.
            [171 ]simpleDepartment of Particle Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science , Rehovot, Israel.
            [172 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Wisconsin , Madison, WI, USA.
            [173 ]simpleFakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Julius-Maximilians-Universität , Würzburg, Germany.
            [174 ]simpleFachbereich C Physik, Bergische Universität Wuppertal , Wuppertal, Germany.
            [175 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Yale University , New Haven, CT, USA.
            [176 ]simpleYerevan Physics Institute , Yerevan, Armenia.
            [177 ]simpleDomaine scientifique de la Doua, Centre de Calcul CNRS/IN2P3 , Villeurbanne, Cedex, France.
            [178 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Dumlupinar University , Kutahya;
            [179 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Gazi University , Ankara;
            [180 ]simpleDivision of Physics, TOBB University of Economics and Technology , Ankara;
            [181 ]simpleTurkish Atomic Energy Authority , Ankara, Turkey
            [182 ]simpleVinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences , Belgrade, Serbia
            [183 ]simpleDivision of Physics, Dogus University , Istanbul;
            [184 ]simpleDepartment of Physics Engineering, Gaziantep University , Gaziantep;
            [185 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna , Bologna, Italy
            [186 ]simpleInstituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo, Brazil
            [187 ]simpleUniversity Politehnica Bucharest , Bucharest;
            [188 ]simpleWest University in Timisoara , Timisoara, Romania
            [189 ]simpleDepartamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María , Valparaíso, Chile
            [190 ]simpleDepartment of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China , Anhui;
            [191 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Nanjing University , Jiangsu;
            [192 ]simpleHigh Energy Physics Group, Shandong University , Shandong, China
            [193 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria , Arcavata di Rende, Italy
            [194 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova , Genova, Italy
            [195 ]simplePhysikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg , Heidelberg;
            [196 ]simpleZITI Institut für technische Informatik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg , Mannheim, Germany
            [197 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università del Salento , Lecce, Italy
            [198 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano , Milano, Italy
            [199 ]simpleDipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli , Napoli, Italy
            [200 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia , Pavia, Italy
            [201 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Università di Pisa , Pisa, Italy
            [202 ]simpleDepartamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Universidad de Granada , Granada, Spain
            [203 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza , Roma, Italy
            [204 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata , Roma, Italy
            [205 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università Roma Tre , Roma, Italy
            [206 ]simpleCentre National de l'Energie des Sciences Techniques Nucleaires , Rabat;
            [207 ]simpleUniversité Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des sciences Semlalia Département de Physique , B.P. 2390 Marrakech 40000;
            [208 ]simpleFaculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM , Oujda;
            [209 ]simpleFaculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V , Rabat, Morocco
            [210 ]simpleDepartment of Subnuclear Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences , Kosice, Slovak Republic
            [211 ]simpleSchool of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg, South Africa
            [212 ]simpleThe Oskar Klein Centre , Stockholm, Sweden
            [213 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, York University , Toronto ON, Canada
            [214 ]simpleICTP , Trieste;
            [215 ]simpleDipartimento di Fisica, Università di Udine , Udine, Italy
            [216 ]simpleLaboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas - LIP , Lisboa, Portugal
            [217 ]simpleFaculdade de Ciencias and CFNUL, Universidade de Lisboa , Lisboa, Portugal
            [218 ]simpleCPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3 , Marseille, France
            [219 ]simpleTRIUMF , Vancouver BC, Canada
            [220 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, California State University , Fresno CA, United States of America
            [221 ]simpleFaculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology , Krakow, Poland
            [222 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, University of Coimbra , Coimbra, Portugal
            [223 ]simple di Napoli Parthenope, Napoli , Italy
            [224 ]simpleInstitute of Particle Physics (IPP) , Canada
            [225 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Middle East Technical University , Ankara, Turkey
            [226 ]simpleLouisiana Tech University , Ruston LA, United States of America
            [227 ]simpleGroup of Particle Physics, University of Montreal , Montreal QC, Canada
            [228 ]simpleInstitute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences , Baku, Azerbaijan
            [229 ]simpleInstitut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg , Hamburg, Germany
            [230 ]simpleManhattan College , New York NY, United States of America
            [231 ]simpleSchool of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University , Guanzhou, China
            [232 ]simpleAcademia Sinica Grid Computing, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica , Taipei, Taiwan
            [233 ]simpleHigh Energy Physics Group, Shandong University , Shandong, China
            [234 ]simpleCalifornia Institute of Technology , Pasadena CA, United States of America
            [235 ]simpleParticle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory , Didcot, United Kingdom
            [236 ]simpleSection de Physique, Université de Genève , Geneva, Switzerland
            [237 ]simpleDepartamento de Fisica, Universidade de Minho , Braga, Portugal
            [238 ]simpleDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina , Columbia SC, United States of America
            [239 ]simpleKFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics , Budapest, Hungary
            [240 ]simpleInstitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University , Krakow, Poland
            [241 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Oxford University , Oxford, United Kingdom
            [242 ]simpleDSM/IRFU (Institut de Recherches sur les Lois Fondamentales de l'Univers), CEA Saclay (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) , Gif-sur-Yvette, France
            [243 ]simpleLaboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies, UPMC and Université Paris-Diderot and CNRS/IN2P3 , Paris, France
            [244 ]simpleDepartment of Physics, Nanjing University , Jiangsu, China
            [245 ]Deceased
            [1 ]simpleEP-PH, CERN, ATLAS Secretariat , Geneva 1211, Switzerland.
            [2 ]A full affiliations list is available on the PDF.
            Author notes
            Article
            ncomms1472
            10.1038/ncomms1472
            3220302
            21897374
            Copyright © 2011, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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