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      Pulsatile Stretch and Shear Stress: Physical Stimuli Determining the Production of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factors

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          Abstract

          Mechanical forces generated at the endothelium by fluid shear stress and pulsatile stretch are important in ensuring the continuous release of vasoactive endothelial autacoids. Although the mechanism by which endothelial cells are able to detect and convert these physical stimuli into chemical signals is unclear, this process involves the activation of integrins, G proteins and cascades of protein kinases. The constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS III), classified as a Ca<sup>2+</sup>/calmodulin-dependent isoform, can be activated by shear stress and isometric contraction in the absence of a maintained increase in [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> via a mechanism involving its redistribution within the cytoskeleton/caveolae and the activation of one or more regulatory NOS-associated proteins. Thus it would appear that the intracellular cascades activated by Ca<sup>2+</sup>-elevating receptor-dependent agonists, such as bradykinin, and hemodynamic stimuli are distinct. Rhythmic vessel distension is also able to elicit the synthesis of superoxide anions and the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor which play a role in modulating arterial compliance in certain vascular beds.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Tensegrity: the architectural basis of cellular mechanotransduction.

           D. Ingber (1996)
          Physical forces of gravity, hemodynamic stresses, and movement play a critical role in tissue development. Yet, little is known about how cells convert these mechanical signals into a chemical response. This review attempts to place the potential molecular mediators of mechanotransduction (e.g. stretch-sensitive ion channels, signaling molecules, cytoskeleton, integrins) within the context of the structural complexity of living cells. The model presented relies on recent experimental findings, which suggests that cells use tensegrity architecture for their organization. Tensegrity predicts that cells are hard-wired to respond immediately to mechanical stresses transmitted over cell surface receptors that physically couple the cytoskeleton to extracellular matrix (e.g. integrins) or to other cells (cadherins, selectins, CAMs). Many signal transducing molecules that are activated by cell binding to growth factors and extracellular matrix associate with cytoskeletal scaffolds within focal adhesion complexes. Mechanical signals, therefore, may be integrated with other environmental signals and transduced into a biochemical response through force-dependent changes in scaffold geometry or molecular mechanics. Tensegrity also provides a mechanism to focus mechanical energy on molecular transducers and to orchestrate and tune the cellular response.
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            Cloned and expressed nitric oxide synthase structurally resembles cytochrome P-450 reductase.

            Nitric oxide is a messenger molecule, mediating the effect of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in blood vessels and the cytotoxic actions of macrophages, and playing a part in neuronal communication in the brain. Cloning of a complementary DNA for brain nitric oxide synthase reveals recognition sites for NADPH, FAD, flavin mononucleotide and calmodulin as well as phosphorylation sites, indicating that the synthase is regulated by many different factors. The only known mammalian enzyme with close homology is cytochrome P-450 reductase.
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              Demonstration of mechanical connections between integrins, cytoskeletal filaments, and nucleoplasm that stabilize nuclear structure

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1998
                April 1998
                16 April 1998
                : 35
                : 2
                : 73-84
                Affiliations
                Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Physiologie, Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe- Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland
                Article
                25568 J Vasc Res 1998;35:73–84
                10.1159/000025568
                9588870
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 132, Pages: 12
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