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      Realistic simulation of reduced-dose CT with noise modeling and sinogram synthesis using DICOM CT images : Realistic simulation of reduced-dose CT using DICOM CT images

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      Medical Physics

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 25

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          Properties of preprocessed sinogram data in x-ray computed tomography.

          The accurate determination of x-ray signal properties is important to several computed tomography (CT) research and development areas, notably for statistical reconstruction algorithms and dose-reduction simulation. The most commonly used model of CT signal formation, assuming monoenergetic x-ray sources with quantum counting detectors obeying simple Poisson statistics, does not reflect the actual physics of CT acquisition. This paper describes a more accurate model, taking into account the energy-integrating detection process, nonuniform flux profiles, and data-conditioning processes. Methods are developed to experimentally measure and theoretically calculate statistical distributions, as well as techniques to analyze CT signal properties. Results indicate the limitations of current models and suggest improvements for the description of CT signal properties.
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            The influence of bowtie filtration on cone-beam CT image quality.

            The large variation of x-ray fluence at the detector in cone-beam CT (CBCT) poses a significant challenge to detectors' limited dynamic range, resulting in the loss of skinline as well as reduction of CT number accuracy, contrast-to-noise ratio, and image uniformity. The authors investigate the performance of a bowtie filter implemented in a system for image-guided radiation therapy (Elekta oncology system, XVI) as a compensator for improved image quality through fluence modulation, reduction in x-ray scatter, and reduction in patient dose. Dose measurements with and without the bowtie filter were performed on a CTDI Dose phantom and an empirical fit was made to calculate dose for any radial distance from the central axis of the phantom. Regardless of patient size, shape, anatomical site, and field of view, the bowtie filter results in an overall improvement in CT number accuracy, image uniformity, low-contrast detectability, and imaging dose. The implemented bowtie filter offers a significant improvement in imaging performance and is compatible with the current clinical system for image-guided radiation therapy.
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              Application of the noise power spectrum in modern diagnostic MDCT: part I. Measurement of noise power spectra and noise equivalent quanta.

              Dose reduction efforts in diagnostic CT have brought the tradeoff of dose versus image quality to the forefront. The need for meaningful characterization of image noise beyond that offered by pixel standard deviation is becoming increasingly important. This work aims to study the implementation of the noise power spectrum (NPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) on modern, multislice diagnostic CT scanners. The details of NPS and NEQ measurement are outlined and special attention is paid to issues unique to multislice CT. Aliasing, filter design and effects of acquisition geometry are investigated. While it was found that both metrics can be implemented in modern CT, it was discovered that NEQ cannot be aptly applied with certain non-traditional reconstruction filters or in helical mode. NPS and NEQ under a variety of conditions are examined. Extensions of NPS and NEQ to uses in protocol standardization are also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medical Physics
                Med. Phys.
                Wiley
                00942405
                January 2014
                December 04 2013
                December 04 2013
                : 41
                : 1
                : 011901
                Article
                10.1118/1.4830431
                © 2013

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