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      Role of the latest endovascular technology in the treatment of intermittent claudication

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          Abstract

          Intermittent claudication is a serious symptom in patients with peripheral arterial disease, and severely limits activities of daily living. Conservative treatment (optimal medical therapy and exercise rehabilitation programs) and revascularization procedures (endovascular treatment [EVT] or open bypass surgery) can relieve intermittent claudication. Among these treatment options, EVT has developed dramatically during the past decade, and has enabled physicians to offer less invasive treatment options with increasing durability. EVT for aortoiliac lesions has matured, and its long-term patency now approaches that of open bypass surgery. The latest EVT technologies include drug-eluting stents, stent grafts, drug-coated balloons, and bioresorbable stents. The recently reported patency of stent grafts in the femoropopliteal lesions was comparable with that of the prosthetic bypass graft. In the course of the paradigm shift from bypass surgery to EVT, evidence of any long-term benefit of EVT compared with supervised exercise is still inconclusive. EVT could improve walking performance in the short-term, while supervised exercise could improve walking performance more efficiently in the long-term. Combined treatment with EVT and exercise may offer the most sustainable and effective symptom relief. This paper reviews the relevant literature on the treatment of intermittent claudication, focusing on the latest EVT technologies, and outlines a strategy for achieving long-term benefits.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Functional decline in peripheral arterial disease: associations with the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms.

          Among individuals with lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD), specific leg symptoms and the ankle brachial index (ABI) are cross-sectionally related to the degree of functional impairment. However, relations between these clinical characteristics and objectively measured functional decline are unknown. To define whether PAD, ABI, and specific leg symptoms predict functional decline at 2-year follow-up. Prospective cohort study among 676 consecutively identified individuals (aged > or =55 years) with and without PAD (n = 417 and n = 259, respectively), with baseline functional assessments occurring between October 1, 1998, and January 31, 2000, and follow-up assessments scheduled 1 and 2 years thereafter. PAD was defined as ABI less than 0.90, and participants with PAD were categorized at baseline into 1 of 5 mutually exclusive symptom groups. Mean annual changes in 6-minute walk performance and in usual-paced and fast-paced 4-m walking velocity, adjusted for age, sex, race, prior-year functioning, comorbid diseases, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and patterns of missing data. Lower baseline ABI values were associated with greater mean (95% confidence interval) annual decline in 6-minute walk performance (-73.0 [-142 to -4.2] ft for ABI <0.50 vs -58.8 [-83.5 to -34.0] ft for ABI 0.50 to <0.90 vs -12.6 [-40.3 to 15.1] ft for ABI 0.90-1.50, P =.02). Compared with participants without PAD, PAD participants with leg pain on exertion and rest at baseline had greater mean annual decline in 6-minute walk performance (-111 [-173 to -50.0] ft vs -8.67 [-36.9 to 19.5] ft, P =.004), usual-pace 4-meter walking velocity (-0.06 [-0.09 to -0.02] m/sec vs -0.01 (-0.03 to 0.003] m/sec, P =.02), and fastest-pace 4-meter walking velocity (-0.07 [-0.11 to -0.03] m/sec vs -0.02 [-0.04 to -0.006] m/sec, P =.046). Compared with participants without PAD, asymptomatic PAD was associated with greater mean annual decline in 6-minute walk performance (-76.8 (-135 to -18.6] ft vs -8.67 (-36.9 to 19.5] ft, P =.04) and an increased odds ratio for becoming unable to walk for 6 minutes continuously (3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-8.36; P =.002). Baseline ABI and the nature of leg symptoms predict the degree of functional decline at 2-year follow-up. Previously reported lack of worsening in claudication symptoms over time in patients with PAD may be more related to declining functional performance to than lack of disease progression.
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            Initial and 6-month results of biodegradable poly-l-lactic acid coronary stents in humans.

            Although metallic stents are effective in preventing acute occlusion and reducing late restenosis after coronary angioplasty, many concerns still remain. Compared with metallic stents, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) stents are biodegradable and can deliver drugs locally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the PLLA stent. Fifteen patients electively underwent PLLA Igaki-Tamai stent implantation for coronary artery stenoses. The Igaki-Tamai stent is made of a PLLA monopolymer, has a thickness of 0.17 mm, and has a zigzag helical coil pattern. A balloon-expandable covered sheath system was used, and the stent expanded by itself to its original size with an adequate temperature. A total of 25 stents were successfully implanted in 19 lesions in 15 patients, and angiographic success was achieved in all procedures. No stent thrombosis and no major cardiac event occurred within 30 days. Coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound were serially performed 1 day, 3 months, and 6 months after the procedure. Angiographically, both the restenosis rate and target lesion revascularization rate per lesion were 10.5%; the rates per patient were 6.7% at 6 months. Intravascular ultrasound findings revealed no significant stent recoil at 1 day, and they revealed stent expansion at follow-up. No major cardiac event, except for repeat angioplasty, developed within 6 months. Our preliminary experience suggests that coronary PLLA biodegradable stents are feasible, safe, and effective in humans. Long-term follow-up with more patients will be required to validate the long-term efficacy of PLLA stents.
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              Balloon angioplasty versus implantation of nitinol stents in the superficial femoral artery.

              Because stent implantation for disease of the superficial femoral artery has been associated with high rates of late clinical failure, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is preferred for endovascular treatment, and stenting is recommended only in the event of suboptimal technical results. We evaluated whether primary implantation of a self-expanding nitinol (nickel-titanium) stent yielded anatomical and clinical benefits superior to those afforded by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with optional secondary stenting. We randomly assigned 104 patients who had severe claudication or chronic limb ischemia due to stenosis or occlusion of the superficial femoral artery to undergo primary stent implantation (51 patients) or angioplasty (53 patients). Restenosis and clinical outcomes were assessed at 6 and 12 months. The mean (+/-SD) length of the treated segment was 132+/-71 mm in the stent group and 127+/-55 mm in the angioplasty group. Secondary stenting was performed in 17 of 53 patients (32 percent) in the angioplasty group, in most cases because of a suboptimal result after angioplasty. At 6 months, the rate of restenosis on angiography was 24 percent in the stent group and 43 percent in the angioplasty group (P=0.05); at 12 months the rates on duplex ultrasonography were 37 percent and 63 percent, respectively (P=0.01). Patients in the stent group were able to walk significantly farther on a treadmill at 6 and 12 months than those in the angioplasty group. In the intermediate term, treatment of superficial-femoral-artery disease by primary implantation of a self-expanding nitinol stent yielded results that were superior to those with the currently recommended approach of balloon angioplasty with optional secondary stenting. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00281060.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2014
                20 June 2014
                : 10
                : 467-474
                Affiliations
                Department of Radiology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shigeo Ichihashi, Department of Radiology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521, Japan, Tel +817 4429 8900, Fax +817 4424 1988, Email shigeoichihashi@ 123456yahoo.co.jp
                Article
                tcrm-10-467
                10.2147/TCRM.S40161
                4074187
                © 2014 Ichihashi and Kichikawa. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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