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      Soluble preparation and characterization of tripartite split GFP for In Vitro reconstitution applications

      , , , ,
      Biochemical Engineering Journal
      Elsevier BV

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          The green fluorescent protein.

          R Tsien (1998)
          In just three years, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has vaulted from obscurity to become one of the most widely studied and exploited proteins in biochemistry and cell biology. Its amazing ability to generate a highly visible, efficiently emitting internal fluorophore is both intrinsically fascinating and tremendously valuable. High-resolution crystal structures of GFP offer unprecedented opportunities to understand and manipulate the relation between protein structure and spectroscopic function. GFP has become well established as a marker of gene expression and protein targeting in intact cells and organisms. Mutagenesis and engineering of GFP into chimeric proteins are opening new vistas in physiological indicators, biosensors, and photochemical memories.
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            Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein is uncommonly effective at promoting the solubility of polypeptides to which it is fused.

            Although it is usually possible to achieve a favorable yield of a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, obtaining the protein in a soluble, biologically active form continues to be a major challenge. Sometimes this problem can be overcome by fusing an aggregation-prone polypeptide to a highly soluble partner. To study this phenomenon in greater detail, we compared the ability of three soluble fusion partners--maltose-binding protein (MBP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and thioredoxin (TRX)--to inhibit the aggregation of six diverse proteins that normally accumulate in an insoluble form. Remarkably, we found that MBP is a far more effective solubilizing agent than the other two fusion partners. Moreover, we demonstrated that in some cases fusion to MBP can promote the proper folding of the attached protein into its biologically active conformation. Thus, MBP seems to be capable of functioning as a general molecular chaperone in the context of a fusion protein. A model is proposed to explain how MBP promotes the solubility and influences the folding of its fusion partners.
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              Use of the green fluorescent protein and its mutants in quantitative fluorescence microscopy.

              We have investigated properties relevant to quantitative imaging in living cells of five green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants that have been used extensively or are potentially useful. We measured the extinction coefficients, quantum yields, pH effects, photobleaching effects, and temperature-dependent chromophore formation of wtGFP, alphaGFP (F99S/M153T/V163A), S65T, EGFP (F64L/S65T), and a blue-shifted variant, EBFP (F64L/S65T/Y66H/Y145F). Absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy showed little difference between the extinction coefficients and quantum yields of wtGFP and alphaGFP. In contrast, S65T and EGFP extinction coefficients made them both approximately 6-fold brighter than wtGFP when excited at 488 nm, and EBFP absorbed more strongly than the wtGFP when excited in the near-UV wavelength region, although it had a much lower quantum efficiency. When excited at 488 nm, the GFPs were all more resistant to photobleaching than fluorescein. However, the wtGFP and alphaGFP photobleaching patterns showed initial increases in fluorescence emission caused by photoconversion of the protein chromophore. The wtGFP fluorescence decreased more quickly when excited at 395 nm than 488 nm, but it was still more photostable than the EBFP when excited at this wavelength. The wtGFP and alphaGFP were quite stable over a broad pH range, but fluorescence of the other variants decreased rapidly below pH 7. When expressed in bacteria, chromophore formation in wtGFP and S65T was found to be less efficient at 37 degrees C than at 28 degrees C, but the other three variants showed little differences between 37 degrees C and 28 degrees C. In conclusion, no single GFP variant is ideal for every application, but each one offers advantages and disadvantages for quantitative imaging in living cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biochemical Engineering Journal
                Biochemical Engineering Journal
                Elsevier BV
                1369703X
                November 2022
                November 2022
                : 187
                : 108643
                Article
                10.1016/j.bej.2022.108643
                ef58b9d3-89d7-41a6-85ea-a89aacb1f7b7
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-004

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