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      Adjuvant Sufentanil Decreased the EC50 of Epidural Ropivacaine for Labor Analgesia in Healthy Term Pregnancy

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          The optimal concentration of ropivacaine as epidural labor analgesia combined with sufentanil has not been established. This study aimed to determine the median effective concentration (EC50) of epidural ropivacaine for labor analgesia in healthy term pregnancy when co-administered with sufentanil as an adjuvant or alone.

          Patients and Methods

          Sixty healthy parturients scheduled for epidural labor analgesia were enrolled in the study. They were divided into a saline group (Group C) and an epidural sufentanil (0.5 µg/mL) group (Group S). The initial concentration of ropivacaine was set at 0.125%, which was then varied by 0.01% using the up-and-down sequential allocation method. The hemodynamics were continuously monitored during delivery. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the degree of pain. The Ramsay sedation score, duration of the labor stages, the onset of epidural analgesia, and adverse effects were recorded. Neonatal outcomes were evaluated using the Apgar scores and umbilical artery blood gas analysis.


          The EC50 of ropivacaine was 0.085% (95% CI, 0.079–0.090%) in Group S and 0.109% (95% CI, 0.105–0.112%) in Group C. The EC95 of ropivacaine was 0.096% (95% CI, 0.090–0.118%) in Group S, and 0.116% (95% CI, 0.113–0.127%) in Group C. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The stable hemodynamics, satisfactory analgesia, and good neonatal outcomes were comparable in both groups (P > 0.05).


          The EC50 of ropivacaine was reduced by 22% when co-administered with sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia in primipara. ( www.chictr.org.cn ; registration number: ChiCTR2000039547).

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          Most cited references 21

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          Overlapping confidence intervals or standard error intervals: What do they mean in terms of statistical significance?

          We investigate the procedure of checking for overlap between confidence intervals or standard error intervals to draw conclusions regarding hypotheses about differences between population parameters. Mathematical expressions and algebraic manipulations are given, and computer simulations are performed to assess the usefulness of confidence and standard error intervals in this manner. We make recommendations for their use in situations in which standard tests of hypotheses do not exist. An example is given that tests this methodology for comparing effective dose levels in independent probit regressions, an application that is also pertinent to derivations of LC50s for insect pathogens and of detectability half-lives for prey proteins or DNA sequences in predator gut analysis.
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            Advances in and limitations of up-and-down methodology: a précis of clinical use, study design, and dose estimation in anesthesia research.

            Sequential design methods for binary response variables exist for determination of the concentration or dose associated with the 50% point along the dose-response curve; the up-and-down method of Dixon and Mood is now commonly used in anesthesia research. There have been important developments in statistical methods that (1) allow the design of experiments for the measurement of the response at any point (quantile) along the dose-response curve, (2) demonstrate the risk of certain statistical methods commonly used in literature reports, (3) allow the estimation of the concentration or dose-the target dose-associated with the chosen quantile without the assumption of the symmetry of the tolerance distribution, and (4) set bounds on the probability of response at this target dose. This article details these developments, briefly surveys current use of the up-and-down method in anesthesia research, reanalyzes published reports using the up-and-down method for the study of the epidural relief of pain during labor, and discusses appropriate inferences from up-and-down method studies.
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              Staircase bioassay: The up-and-down method

               W.J. Dixon (1991)

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                18 May 2021
                : 15
                : 2143-2149
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Chongqing Health Center for Women and Children , Chongqing, 401147, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Chongqing Dongnan Hospital , Chongqing, 401336, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jin Yu Department of Anesthesiology, Chongqing Health Center for Women and Children , No. 120, Longshan Road, Yubei District, Chongqing, 401147, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-18623117820Fax +86-23-63702844 Email dodoes@qq.com
                Jian Yang Department of Anesthesiology, Chongqing Dongnan Hospital , No. 98, Tongjiang Ave, Nanan District, Chongqing, 401336, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-23-62905685 Email charlalice@sina.com
                © 2021 Xiang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 21, Pages: 7
                Clinical Trial Report


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