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      Coming of age: ten years of next-generation sequencing technologies

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          Abstract

          Since the completion of the human genome project in 2003, extraordinary progress has been made in genome sequencing technologies, which has led to a decreased cost per megabase and an increase in the number and diversity of sequenced genomes. An astonishing complexity of genome architecture has been revealed, bringing these sequencing technologies to even greater advancements. Some approaches maximize the number of bases sequenced in the least amount of time, generating a wealth of data that can be used to understand increasingly complex phenotypes. Alternatively, other approaches now aim to sequence longer contiguous pieces of DNA, which are essential for resolving structurally complex regions. These and other strategies are providing researchers and clinicians a variety of tools to probe genomes in greater depth, leading to an enhanced understanding of how genome sequence variants underlie phenotype and disease.

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          Most cited references81

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          An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing.

          The seminal importance of DNA sequencing to the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine has driven the search for more scalable and lower-cost solutions. Here we describe a DNA sequencing technology in which scalable, low-cost semiconductor manufacturing techniques are used to make an integrated circuit able to directly perform non-optical DNA sequencing of genomes. Sequence data are obtained by directly sensing the ions produced by template-directed DNA polymerase synthesis using all-natural nucleotides on this massively parallel semiconductor-sensing device or ion chip. The ion chip contains ion-sensitive, field-effect transistor-based sensors in perfect register with 1.2 million wells, which provide confinement and allow parallel, simultaneous detection of independent sequencing reactions. Use of the most widely used technology for constructing integrated circuits, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, allows for low-cost, large-scale production and scaling of the device to higher densities and larger array sizes. We show the performance of the system by sequencing three bacterial genomes, its robustness and scalability by producing ion chips with up to 10 times as many sensors and sequencing a human genome.
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            Structural variation of chromosomes in autism spectrum disorder.

            Structural variation (copy number variation [CNV] including deletion and duplication, translocation, inversion) of chromosomes has been identified in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the full etiologic role is unknown. We performed genome-wide assessment for structural abnormalities in 427 unrelated ASD cases via single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and karyotyping. With microarrays, we discovered 277 unbalanced CNVs in 44% of ASD families not present in 500 controls (and re-examined in another 1152 controls). Karyotyping detected additional balanced changes. Although most variants were inherited, we found a total of 27 cases with de novo alterations, and in three (11%) of these individuals, two or more new variants were observed. De novo CNVs were found in approximately 7% and approximately 2% of idiopathic families having one child, or two or more ASD siblings, respectively. We also detected 13 loci with recurrent/overlapping CNV in unrelated cases, and at these sites, deletions and duplications affecting the same gene(s) in different individuals and sometimes in asymptomatic carriers were also found. Notwithstanding complexities, our results further implicate the SHANK3-NLGN4-NRXN1 postsynaptic density genes and also identify novel loci at DPP6-DPP10-PCDH9 (synapse complex), ANKRD11, DPYD, PTCHD1, 15q24, among others, for a role in ASD susceptibility. Our most compelling result discovered CNV at 16p11.2 (p = 0.002) (with characteristics of a genomic disorder) at approximately 1% frequency. Some of the ASD regions were also common to mental retardation loci. Structural variants were found in sufficiently high frequency influencing ASD to suggest that cytogenetic and microarray analyses be considered in routine clinical workup.
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              Performance comparison of benchtop high-throughput sequencing platforms.

              Three benchtop high-throughput sequencing instruments are now available. The 454 GS Junior (Roche), MiSeq (Illumina) and Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies) are laser-printer sized and offer modest set-up and running costs. Each instrument can generate data required for a draft bacterial genome sequence in days, making them attractive for identifying and characterizing pathogens in the clinical setting. We compared the performance of these instruments by sequencing an isolate of Escherichia coli O104:H4, which caused an outbreak of food poisoning in Germany in 2011. The MiSeq had the highest throughput per run (1.6 Gb/run, 60 Mb/h) and lowest error rates. The 454 GS Junior generated the longest reads (up to 600 bases) and most contiguous assemblies but had the lowest throughput (70 Mb/run, 9 Mb/h). Run in 100-bp mode, the Ion Torrent PGM had the highest throughput (80–100 Mb/h). Unlike the MiSeq, the Ion Torrent PGM and 454 GS Junior both produced homopolymer-associated indel errors (1.5 and 0.38 errors per 100 bases, respectively).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Genetics
                Nat Rev Genet
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1471-0056
                1471-0064
                June 2016
                May 17 2016
                June 2016
                : 17
                : 6
                : 333-351
                Article
                10.1038/nrg.2016.49
                27184599
                ef82059a-92c7-4e6d-a439-1c169de57e38
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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