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      Physical Performance and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis Patients: A Secondary Analysis of the Excite Trial

      a , b , a , c , a , d , d , e , f , g , e , h , a , i , j , f , l , i , l , j , k , f , g , e , l , k , a , d , a , a

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

      Chronic kidney disease, Dialysis, Clinical outcomes, Physical performance, Six-minute walking test

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          Background/Aims: Scarce physical activity predicts shorter survival in dialysis patients. However, the relationship between physical (motor) fitness and clinical outcomes has never been tested in these patients. Methods: We tested the predictive power of an established metric of motor fitness, the Six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), for death, cardiovascular events and hospitalization in 296 dialysis patients who took part in the trial EXCITE (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01255969). Results: During follow up 69 patients died, 90 had fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, 159 were hospitalized and 182 patients had the composite outcome. In multivariate Cox models - including the study allocation arm and classical and non-classical risk factors - an increase of 20 walked metres during the 6MWT was associated to a 6% reduction of the risk for the composite end-point (P=0.001) and a similar relationship existed between the 6MWT, mortality (P<0.001) and hospitalizations (P=0.03). A similar trend was observed for cardiovascular events but this relationship did not reach statistical significance (P=0.09). Conclusions: Poor physical performance predicts a high risk of mortality, cardiovascular events and hospitalizations in dialysis patients. Future studies, including phase-2 EXCITE, will assess whether improving motor fitness may translate into better clinical outcomes in this high risk population.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Physical activity levels in patients on hemodialysis and healthy sedentary controls.

          Patients on dialysis have reduced exercise tolerance compared with age-matched sedentary controls. The reasons for this debility have not been fully elucidated, but physical inactivity could be a contributing factor. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls and to explore clinical correlates of physical activity level in a group of hemodialysis patients. Thirty-four hemodialysis patients and 80 healthy sedentary individuals participated in the study. Physical activity was measured for seven days with a three-dimensional accelerometer and with an activity questionnaire. Vector magnitude values from the accelerometer for the dialysis and control subjects were 104,718 +/- 9631 and 161,255 +/- 6792 arbitrary units per day, respectively (P < 0.0001, mean +/- SEM). The estimated energy expenditure values derived from the questionnaire were 33.6 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day and 36.2 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day (P = 0.002). The difference between patients on dialysis and controls increased with advancing age. Among the dialysis subjects, some measures of nutritional status correlated with physical activity level, including serum albumin concentration (r = 0.58, P = 0.003), serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.37, P = 0. 03), and phase angle derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (r = 0.40, P = 0.02). Patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls, and this difference is more pronounced among older individuals. There is an association between the level of physical activity and nutritional status among patients on dialysis. These findings are of great concern, given the trend toward increasing age in incident dialysis patients and the well-known association between inactivity and increased mortality in the general population.
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            Physical exercise among participants in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS): correlates and associated outcomes.

            Levels of physical exercise among haemodialysis patients are low. Increased physical activity in this population has been associated with improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and survival. However, results of previous studies may not be applicable to the haemodialysis population as a whole. The present study provides the first description of international patterns of exercise frequency and its association with exercise programmes and clinical outcomes among participants in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Data from a cross section of 20,920 DOPPS participants in 12 countries between 1996 and 2004 were analysed. Regular exercise was defined as exercise frequency equal to or more than once/week based on patient self-report. Linear mixed models and logistic regression assessed associations of exercise frequency with HRQoL and other psychosocial variables. Mortality risk was calculated in Cox proportional hazard models using patient-level (patient self-reported exercise frequency) and facility-level (the dialysis facility percentage of regular exercisers) predictors. Regular exercise frequency varied widely across countries and across dialysis facilities within a country. Overall, 47.4% of participants were categorized as regular exercisers. The odds of regular exercise was 38% higher for patients from facilities offering exercise programmes (adjusted odds ratio = 1.38 [95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.84]; P = 0.03). Regular exercisers had higher HRQoL, physical functioning and sleep quality scores; reported fewer limitations in physical activities; and were less bothered by bodily pain or lack of appetite (P
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              Decreased survival among sedentary patients undergoing dialysis: results from the dialysis morbidity and mortality study wave 2.

              Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk for death in the general population. However, the association between inactivity and mortality has not been studied in a large cohort of dialysis patients despite the high prevalence of sedentary behavior in this group. We used the Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 2, a prospective study of a national sample of 4,024 incident peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients from 1996 to 1997, to determine whether sedentary behavior is associated with increased mortality during a 1-year period in this group after adjusting for confounding variables. The study population consisted of the 2,837 patients with accurate survival data who were able to ambulate and transfer. Eleven percent of the sedentary patients died during the study period compared with 5% of nonsedentary patients. In a survival analysis, sedentary behavior (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 2.27) was associated with an increased risk for death at 1 year after adjusting for all variables that we postulated might be associated with survival and for differences between sedentary and nonsedentary patients. Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk for mortality among dialysis patients similar in magnitude to that of other well-established risk factors, such as a one-point reduction in serum albumin concentration. More attention should be given to exercise behavior in dialysis patients, and controlled clinical trials are needed to further define the association of sedentary behavior with mortality. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2014
                29 July 2014
                : 39
                : 2-3
                : 205-211
                aCNR-IFC, Clinical Epidemiology and Physiopathology of Renal Diseases and Hypertension of Reggio Calabria, Italy; bDepartment of Biomedical Sciences and Surgical Specialties -Section of Sport Sciences, University of Ferrara; cNephrology Unit, Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo (Foggia); dNephrology Unit, AOU Ferrara Arcispedale S. Anna, Ferrara; eNephrology and Dialysis Unit, IRCCS Multimedica - Policlinico Multispecialistico, Sesto S. Giovanni, Milan; fClinical Division of Chirurgical Nephrology, University of Catania - Azzurra Medical Nephrological Ambulatory and Dialysis Techniques, Catania; gDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Catania; hDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa; iNephrology and Dialysis Unit, Ospedale Pugliese-Ciaccio, Catanzaro; jNefrology and Dialysis Unit, IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore - Policlinico, Milano; kNephrology and Dialysis Unit, Ospedale Civile, Imola; lNephrology and Dialysis Unit, Policlinico Universitario Mater Domini, Catanzaro, Italy
                355798 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:205-211
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Original Paper


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