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      The Old World genera of braconine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

      Journal of Natural History
      Informa UK Limited

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          A COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF THE VENOM APPARATUS OF FEMALE BRACONIDS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

          The venom apparatus was examined in 160 species of female Braconidae. The venom apparatus is illustrated for females of 26 representative genera and those of the remaining females are described. Our findings indicate that there are two types of venom apparatus present in Braconidae. Type 1 is found in females of subfamilies having more ancestral character states: Doryctinae, Spathiinae, Braconinae, Opiinae, Rogadinae, Alysiinae, and Ichneutinae. Typically, type 1 venom apparatus consists of a cone-shaped reservoir which is surrounded by many longitudinal and circular muscles and lined with a relatively thick cuticular intima, gland filaments, and a venom duct. Type 2 is found in females of subfamilies having more derived character states: Cheloninae, Microgasterinae, Agathidinae, Macrocentrinae, Helconinae, Neoneurinae, Centistinae, Paxylommatinae, and Euphorinae. Typically, type 2 consists of a thin-walled reservoir surrounded by relatively few muscles, two gland filaments, and a venom duct. The Aphidiinae is the only subfamily in which the females examined have both types of venom apparatus represented. Of those genera examined, only females of Praon have type 2, while females of the remaining genera have type 1 venom apparatus. Braconid females with type 1 venom apparatus are either ectoparasitoids or endoparasitoids which pupate within the host remains, while those females with type 2 are endoparasitoids which pupate outside the host remains.
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            Hamuli number in the Braconinae (Hymenoptera : Draconidae) : An inter and intraspecific, size-dependent, taxonomic character

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              Redescription of Craspedolcus with notes on included species and related genera (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Natural History
                Journal of Natural History
                Informa UK Limited
                0022-2933
                1464-5262
                February 1987
                February 1987
                : 21
                : 1
                : 43-157
                Article
                10.1080/00222938700770031
                ef8fe31f-c724-413f-b26b-f73d6945d46a
                © 1987

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