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      Prognostic value of the extent of resection in supratentorial WHO grade II astrocytomas stratified for IDH1 mutation status: a single-center volumetric analysis


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          Current evidence supports a maximized extent of resection (EOR) in low-grade gliomas (LGG), regardless of different histological subtypes and molecular markers. We therefore evaluated the prognostic impact of extensive, mainly intraoperative (i)MRI-guided surgery in low-grade astrocytomas stratified for IDH1 mutation status. Retrospective assessment of 46 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed supratentorial WHO grade II astrocytomas treated during the last decade was performed. IDH1 mutation status was obtained for all patients. Volumetric analysis of tumor volumes was performed pre-, intra-, early postoperatively and at first follow-up. Survival analysis was conducted with uni-and multivariate regression models implementing clinical parameters and continuous volumetric variables. Median EOR was 90.4 % (range 17.5–100 %) and was increased to 94.9 % (range 34.8–100 %) in iMRI-guided resections (n = 33). A greater EOR was prognostic for increased progression-free survival (HR 0.23, p = 0.031) and time to re-intervention (TTR) (HR 0.23, p = 0.03). In IDH1 mutant patients, smaller residual tumor volumes were associated with increased TTR (HR 1.01, p = 0.03). IDH1 mutation (38/46 cases) was an independent positive prognosticator for overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (HR 0.09, p = 0.002), while extensive surgery had limited impact upon OS. In a subgroup of patients with ≥40 % EOR (n = 39), however, initial and residual tumor volumes were prognostic for OS (HR 1.03, p = 0.005 and HR 1.08, p = 0.007, respectively), persistent to adjustment for IDH1. No association between EOR and neurologic morbidity was found. In this analysis of low-grade astrocytomas stratified for IDH1, extensive tumor resections were prognostic for progression and TTR and, in patients with ≥40 % EOR, for OS.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11060-016-2177-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Type and frequency of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are related to astrocytic and oligodendroglial differentiation and age: a study of 1,010 diffuse gliomas.

          Somatic mutations in the IDH1 gene encoding cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase have been shown in the majority of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of WHO grades II and III. IDH2 encoding mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is also mutated in these tumors, albeit at much lower frequencies. Preliminary data suggest an importance of IDH1 mutation for prognosis showing that patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas harboring IDH1 mutations seem to fare much better than patients without this mutation in their tumors. To determine mutation types and their frequencies, we examined 1,010 diffuse gliomas. We detected 716 IDH1 mutations and 31 IDH2 mutations. We found 165 IDH1 (72.7%) and 2 IDH2 mutations (0.9%) in 227 diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II, 146 IDH1 (64.0%) and 2 IDH2 mutations (0.9%) in 228 anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III, 105 IDH1 (82.0%) and 6 IDH2 mutations (4.7%) in 128 oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II, 121 IDH1 (69.5%) and 9 IDH2 mutations (5.2%) in 174 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas WHO grade III, 62 IDH1 (81.6%) and 1 IDH2 mutations (1.3%) in 76 oligoastrocytomas WHO grade II and 117 IDH1 (66.1%) and 11 IDH2 mutations (6.2%) in 177 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas WHO grade III. We report on an inverse association of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in these gliomas and a non-random distribution of the mutation types within the tumor entities. IDH1 mutations of the R132C type are strongly associated with astrocytoma, while IDH2 mutations predominantly occur in oligodendroglial tumors. In addition, patients with anaplastic glioma harboring IDH1 mutations were on average 6 years younger than those without these alterations.
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            Comparison of a strategy favoring early surgical resection vs a strategy favoring watchful waiting in low-grade gliomas.

            There are no controlled studies on surgical treatment of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and management is controversial. To examine survival in population-based parallel cohorts of LGGs from 2 Norwegian university hospitals with different surgical treatment strategies. Both neurosurgical departments are exclusive providers in adjacent geographical regions with regional referral practices. In hospital A diagnostic biopsies followed by a "wait and scan" approach has been favored (biopsy and watchful waiting), while early resections have been advocated in hospital B (early resection). Thus, the treatment strategy in individual patients has been highly dependent on the patient's residential address. Histopathology specimens from all adult patients diagnosed with LGG from 1998 through 2009 underwent a blinded histopathological review to ensure uniform classification and inclusion. Follow-up ended April 11, 2011. There were 153 patients (66 from the center favoring biopsy and watchful waiting and 87 from the center favoring early resection) with diffuse LGGs included. The prespecified primary end point was overall survival based on regional comparisons without adjusting for administered treatment. Results Initial biopsy alone was carried out in 47 (71%) patients served by the center favoring biopsy and watchful waiting and in 12 (14%) patients served by the center favoring early resection (P < .001). Median follow-up was 7.0 years (interquartile range, 4.5-10.9) at the center favoring biopsy and watchful waiting and 7.1 years (interquartile range, 4.2-9.9) at the center favoring early resection (P=.95). The 2 groups were comparable with respect to baseline parameters. Overall survival was significantly better with early surgical resection (P=.01). Median survival was 5.9 years (95% CI, 4.5-7.3) with the approach favoring biopsy only while median survival was not reached with the approach favoring early resection. Estimated 5-year survival was 60% (95% CI, 48%-72%) and 74% (95% CI, 64%-84%) for biopsy and watchful waiting and early resection, respectively. In an adjusted multivariable analysis the relative hazard ratio was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-2.9, P=.03) when treated at the center favoring biopsy and watchful waiting. For patients in Norway with LGG, treatment at a center that favored early surgical resection was associated with better overall survival than treatment at a center that favored biopsy and watchful waiting. This survival benefit remained after adjusting for validated prognostic factors.
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              ATRX and IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry with subsequent copy number analysis and IDH sequencing as a basis for an "integrated" diagnostic approach for adult astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma.

              Diffuse gliomas are represented in the 2007 WHO classification as astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas of grades II and III and glioblastomas WHO grade IV. Molecular data on these tumors have a major impact on prognosis and therapy of the patients. Consequently, the inclusion of molecular parameters in the WHO definition of brain tumors is being planned and has been forwarded as the "ISN-Haarlem" consensus. We, here, analyze markers of special interest including ATRX, IDH and 1p/19q codeletion in a series of 405 adult patients. Among the WHO 2007 classified tumors were 152 astrocytomas, 61 oligodendrogliomas, 63 oligoastrocytomas and 129 glioblastomas. Following the concepts of the "ISN-Haarlem", we rediagnosed the series to obtain "integrated" diagnoses with 155 tumors being astrocytomas, 100 oligodendrogliomas and 150 glioblastomas. In a subset of 100 diffuse gliomas from the NOA-04 trial with long-term follow-up data available, the "integrated" diagnosis had a significantly greater prognostic power for overall and progression-free survival compared to WHO 2007. Based on the "integrated" diagnoses, loss of ATRX expression was close to being mutually exclusive to 1p/19q codeletion, with only 2 of 167 ATRX-negative tumors exhibiting 1p/19q codeletion. All but 4 of 141 patients with loss of ATRX expression and diffuse glioma carried either IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. Interestingly, the majority of glioblastoma patients with loss of ATRX expression but no IDH mutations exhibited an H3F3A mutation. Further, all patients with 1p/19 codeletion carried a mutation in IDH1 or IDH2. We present an algorithm based on stepwise analysis with initial immunohistochemistry for ATRX and IDH1-R132H followed by 1p/19q analysis followed by IDH sequencing which reduces the number of molecular analyses and which has a far better association with patient outcome than WHO 2007.

                Author and article information

                +49-6221-566301 , andreas.unterberg@med.uni-heidelberg.de
                J Neurooncol
                J. Neurooncol
                Journal of Neuro-Oncology
                Springer US (New York )
                25 June 2016
                25 June 2016
                : 129
                : 319-328
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
                [2 ]Division of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
                [3 ]Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
                [4 ]German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), CCU Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                : 26 October 2015
                : 4 June 2016
                Clinical Study
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                low-grade astrocytoma,volumetric analysis,extent of resection,idh1,intraoperative mri,survival


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