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      Effect of Congenital Heart Disease on Renal Function in Childhood

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          Abstract

          Background: Nephropathy is a well-known complication of congenital heart disease (CHD), and the risk of developing renal impairment is particularly high in patients with cyanotic CHD. Most investigations of renal impairment in CHD have involved patients 20 years and older. This study investigated renal tubule function in pediatric patients with CHD, and compared findings in cyanotic and acyanotic groups. Methods: Twenty children with acyanotic CHD, 23 children with cyanotic CHD, and 13 healthy children were enrolled. Blood and early morning urine samples were collected from each subject to measure urinary concentrations of sodium, microalbumin, creatinine, β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β- D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Results: The age and sex distributions in the three groups were similar. Median fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) and urinary NAG/creatinine were significantly higher in the cyanotic group than in the control group (p = 0.022 and p = 0.002, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences among the groups with respect to urinary β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin/creatinine, urinary microalbumin/creatinine or glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion: Tubular injury can be detected before glomerular injury occurs even within the first decade of life in patients with cyanotic CHD.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Mechanisms of chronic hypoxia-induced renal cell growth.

          Chronic local tissue hypoxia appears to play an important role in the initiation and progression of chronic renal disease. We examined the effect of local hypoxia on cultured renal tubular epithelial and mesangial cell proliferation, dedifferentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis. The underlying signaling mechanisms whereby hypoxia induces renal cell growth were evaluated. The roles of protein kinase C, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, TGF-beta1, osteopontin, and nitric oxide were determined.
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            Low molecular weight protein excretion in glomerular disease: a comparative analysis.

            We studied 23 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), 21 children with steroid-resistant types of nephrotic syndrome and 32 children with other types of nephritis. Our controls were 43 apparently healthy children. We measured the urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and the low molecular weight (LMW) protein beta 2-microglobulin (B2M), retinol-binding protein (RBP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M) and urine protein 1 (UP1). Results for B2M were considered only for a urine pH greater than 6.0. Comparisons were made with urine albumin excretion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular abnormalities in selected renal biopsy samples. We found that abnormalities of LMW protein excretion occurred in between 50% (B2M) and 88% (UP1) of all subjects. In children with SSNS, A1M (r = 0.73), UP1 (r = 0.65) and NAG (r = 0.54) excretion were significantly correlated with albumin excretion, but not RBP or B2M excretion. Increased fractional excretion of A1M, B2M and UP1 and increased plasma A1M were demonstrated in 9 children with SSNS, suggesting competition for tubular reabsorption with albumin, most marked for UP1. In the steroid-resistant nephrotic and nephritic syndromes, correlation with albumin was found for all proteins. In these subjects, RBP (r = 0.37), B2M (r = 0.42) and A1M (r = 0.28) were inversely correlated with GFR, but not UP1, NAG or albumin. We found that RBP excretion was significantly greater in the presence of severe tubular abnormalities in 11 children with recent renal biopsies, but not A1M, UP1 or NAG. We conclude that LMW proteinuria is common in children with glomerular disease, and does not necessarily imply a poor prognosis. Factors other than histologically proven tubular abnormality may account for elevated LMW protein excretion. RBP is the LMW protein most closely associated with structural abnormality and least affected by increasing albuminuria.
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              Incidence of renal dysfunction in adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2005
                January 2005
                27 December 2004
                : 99
                : 1
                : p10-p15
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatric Nephrology, bPediatrics, cBiochemistry, and dPediatric Cardiology, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                81797 Nephron Physiol 2005;99:p10–p15
                10.1159/000081797
                15637467
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 19, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81797
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