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      Weathering in soil increases nanoparticle CuO bioaccumulation within a terrestrial food chain.

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          This study evaluates the bioaccumulation of unweathered (U) and weathered (W) CuO in NP, bulk and ionic form (0-400 mg/kg) by lettuce exposed for 70 d in soil co-contaminated with field incurred chlordane. To evaluate CuO trophic transfer, leaves were fed to crickets (Acheta domestica) for 15 d, followed by insect feeding to lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Upon weathering, the root Cu content of the NP treatment increased 214% (327 ± 59.1 mg/kg) over unaged treatment. Cu root content decreased in bulk and ionic treatments from 70-130 mg/kg to 13-26 mg/kg upon aging in soil. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis of W-NP-exposed roots showed a homogenous distribution of Cu (and Ca) in the tissues. Additionally, micro X-ray absorption near-edge (μ-XANES) analysis of W-NP-exposed roots showed near complete transformation of CuO to Cu (I)-sulfur and oxide complexes in the tissues, whereas in unweathered treatment, most root Cu remained as CuO. The expression level of nine genes involved in Cu transport shows that the mechanisms of CuO NPs (and bulk) response/accumulation are different than ionic Cu. The chlordane accumulation by lettuce upon co-exposure to CuO NPs significantly increased upon weathering. Conversely, bulk and ionic exposures decreased pesticide accumulation by plant upon weathering. The Cu cricket fecal content from U-NP-exposed insects was significantly greater than the bulk or ion treatments, suggesting a higher initial NP accumulation followed by significantly greater elimination during depuration. In the lizard, Cu content in the intestine, body and head did not differ as a function of weathering. This study demonstrates that CuO NPs may undergo transformation processes in soil upon weathering that subsequently impact NPs availability in terrestrial food chains.

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          Author and article information

          Informa UK Limited
          February 2017
          : 11
          : 1
          [1 ] a Department of Analytical Chemistry , Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station , New Haven , CT , USA.
          [2 ] b Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts , Amherst , MA , USA.
          [3 ] c Department of Life Sciences , University of Parma , Parma , Italy.
          [4 ] d European Synchrotron Radiation Facility , Grenoble Cedex , France.
          [5 ] e Chemistry Department , University of Texas at El Paso , El Paso , TX , USA.
          [6 ] f Universidad de Guanajuato Noria Alta s/n 36000 , Guanajuato , Mexico.
          [7 ] g Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste , Basovizza , Italy.
          [8 ] h University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) , El Paso , TX , USA.

          synchrotron,CuO nanoparticles,Trophic transfer of CuO NPs,aged/weathered nanoparticles,pesticides


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