This study aimed to describe a novel cancer vaccine developed using H 2O 2-inactivated Salmonella typhimurium RE88 [with deletions of AroA (the first enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway) and DNA adenine methylase] as the carrier.
The pVLT33 plasmid was used to engineer an RE88 strain induced to express ovalbumin (OVA) by isopropylthiogalactoside (RE88-pVLT33-OVA). The immune responses and anticancer effects of H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA were compared with those of non-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA and OVA (positive control) in mice carrying OVA-expressing tumors (EG7-OVA) cells.
Anti-ovalbumin IgG (immunoglobulin G) titer following vaccination with H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA was higher for subcutaneous than for intragastric vaccination. When subcutaneous administration was used, H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA (2 × 10 9 CFU (colony forming units)/mouse) achieved an anti-ovalbumin IgG titer higher than that for the same dose of RE88-pVLT33-OVA and comparable to that for 10 µg ovalbumin (positive control). The binding of mouse serum antibodies to EG7-OVA cells was stronger for H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA (2 × 10 9 CFU/mouse) than for 10 µg ovalbumin. Furthermore, subcutaneous vaccination with H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA (2 × 10 9 CFU/mouse) induced greater activation of splenic T cells and more extensive tumor infiltration with CD4 +/CD8 + T cells compared with 10 µg ovalbumin (positive control). The mice vaccinated subcutaneously with H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA at a dose of 2 × 10 8 or 6 × 10 8 CFU/mouse had smaller tumors compared with mice in the negative control groups. Tumor weight in mice vaccinated with H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA at a dose of 2 × 10 9 CFU/mouse was significantly lower than that in both negative control groups ( P < 0.05) and decreased with the increasing dose of H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA. H 2O 2-inactivated RE88-pVLT33-OVA was potentially safer than the non-inactivated strain, could carry exogenous antigens, and had specific epitopes that could be exploited as natural adjuvants to facilitate the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses.