This is a retrospective study to analyze the efficacy of uterine artery chemoembolization (UACE) combined with ultrasound-guided curettage in the treatment of cervical pregnancy and the factors affecting the postoperative outcome. A total of 26 subjects were included in the study and were divided into a control group of 12 and an observer group of 14, all patients with cervical pregnancy diagnosed in our hospital from January 2016 to January 2020. Patients in the control group were treated with methotrexate injection (MTX) combined with ultrasound-guided curettage in our hospital, while the observer group was treated with UACE combined with ultrasound-guided curettage. The efficacy of the two groups was evaluated at 3 months postoperatively, and data on patients' age, days of menopause, pregnancy frequency, and vaginal bleeding were collected retrospectively. Intraoperative bleeding, time to recovery of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), hospitalization time, time to return to normal menstruation, time to disappearance of gestational sac, pregnancy frequency, presence of endometrial inflammation, gestational week, maximum diameter of gestational sac, thinnest myometrium, endogenous-exogenous type, gestational sac size, and HCG level were recorded in both groups. Single-factor analysis and multifactor logistic regression models were used to analyze the factors influencing the surgical outcomes of patients. The results of the study showed that the overall efficiency of the observer group was significantly higher than that of the control group, while intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay, time to return to normal menstruation, and time to disappearance of the gestational sac were all lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The results of univariate and multifactorial analyses showed that endometrial inflammation, gestational week, maximum diameter of the gestational sac, thinnest myometrium, and endogenous-exogenous type could affect the patients' postoperative recovery (p < 0.05); gestational week, maximum diameter of the gestational sac, and thinnest myometrium were independent factors affecting the patients' postoperative recovery (p < 0.05). The above results suggest that UACE combined with ultrasound-guided uterine clearance for cervical pregnancy can significantly improve treatment efficacy, reduce intraoperative bleeding, and improve recovery time from postoperative related symptoms. The treatment efficacy of patients with cervical pregnancy was related to the gestational week, the maximum diameter of the gestational sac, and the thinnest muscle layer.