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      The duration and body position during tongue-kissing among heterosexual men and women

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          Abstract

          Background

          Emerging data suggest tongue-kissing may transmit gonorrhea. We aim to examine the duration or body position of heterosexual men and women during tongue-kissing (henceforth, known as kissing).

          Methods

          A cross-sectional survey among heterosexual men and women attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia between May 2019 and March 2020 collected data on the duration and body position (i.e., on top of or lying down underneath) of their most recent kissing partner in the past 3 months. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were performed to examine the association between gender and kissing duration.

          Results

          Of 2,866 individuals, 93.6% ( n = 2,683) had at least one kissing partner in the past 3 months, which included 1,342 (50.1%) men and 1,341 (49.9%) women, and 87.2% ( n = 2,339) had sex with their opposite-gender kissing partner. The adjusted mean duration of kissing with the most recent opposite-gender kissing partner did not differ between men and women (12.2 vs. 11.5 min, p = 0.170). More men were on top of their most recent opposite-gender kissing partner compared to women (87.9 vs. 82.9%, p < 0.001). Men reported a longer kissing duration than women when they were on top of the opposite-gender kissing partner (8.3 vs. 7.4 min, p = 0.006). More women had same-gender kissing partners than men (9.6 vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001).

          Conclusion

          Men spending longer than women on top of their opposite-gender kissing partner suggests a potential alternative explanation for oropharyngeal gonorrhea being seen more commonly in women. Further research should investigate whether body positioning and duration of kissing influence the risk of gonorrhea transmission.

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          Most cited references57

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          Simulation study of confounder-selection strategies.

          In the absence of prior knowledge about population relations, investigators frequently employ a strategy that uses the data to help them decide whether to adjust for a variable. The authors compared the performance of several such strategies for fitting multiplicative Poisson regression models to cohort data: 1) the "change-in-estimate" strategy, in which a variable is controlled if the adjusted and unadjusted estimates differ by some important amount; 2) the "significance-test-of-the-covariate" strategy, in which a variable is controlled if its coefficient is significantly different from zero at some predetermined significance level; 3) the "significance-test-of-the-difference" strategy, which tests the difference between the adjusted and unadjusted exposure coefficients; 4) the "equivalence-test-of-the-difference" strategy, which significance-tests the equivalence of the adjusted and unadjusted exposure coefficients; and 5) a hybrid strategy that takes a weighted average of adjusted and unadjusted estimates. Data were generated from 8,100 population structures at each of several sample sizes. The performance of the different strategies was evaluated by computing bias, mean squared error, and coverage rates of confidence intervals. At least one variation of each strategy that was examined performed acceptably. The change-in-estimate and equivalence-test-of-the-difference strategies performed best when the cut-point for deciding whether crude and adjusted estimates differed by an important amount was set to a low value (10%). The significance test strategies performed best when the alpha level was set to much higher than conventional levels (0.20).
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            Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers

            Understanding predisposing factors for meningococcal carriage may identify targets for public health interventions. Before mass vaccination with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine began in autumn 1999, we took pharyngeal swabs from ≈14,000 UK teenagers and collected information on potential risk factors. Neisseria meningitidis was cultured from 2,319 (16.7%) of 13,919 swabs. In multivariable analysis, attendance at pubs/clubs, intimate kissing, and cigarette smoking were each independently and strongly associated with increased risk for meningococcal carriage (p<0.001). Carriage in those with none of these risk factors was 7.8%, compared to 32.8% in those with all 3. Passive smoking was also linked to higher risk for carriage, but age, sex, social deprivation, home crowding, or school characteristics had little or no effect. Social behavior, rather than age or sex, can explain the higher frequency of meningococcal carriage among teenagers. A ban on smoking in public places may reduce risk for transmission.
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              Epidemiology of gonorrhoea: a global perspective

              Although understanding the local epidemiology of gonorrhoea is critical for local efforts, understanding the multinational epidemiology may support development of national and international prevention and control policies and strategies. In this paper, current epidemiology of gonorrhoea is reviewed through an international lens and with a focus on selected populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that ~87 million new gonococcal infections occurred among people aged 15–49 years in 2016. Gonorrhoea rates are rising in many countries. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, racial or ethnic minorities, Indigenous populations and sex workers appear to bear disproportionate burdens of gonorrhoea. International travel can facilitate spread of gonorrhoea, including resistant strains, across international borders. Critical gaps in epidemiological knowledge are highlighted, including data on gonorrhoea among transgender persons and the burden of extragenital gonorrhoea. Even as further data are gathered, action — informed by currently available data — is needed now to confront this growing international threat.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2565
                22 December 2022
                2022
                : 10
                : 934962
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health , Melbourne, VIC, Australia
                [2] 2Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University , Melbourne, VIC, Australia
                [3] 3Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne , Melbourne, VIC, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yousef Khader, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan

                Reviewed by: Nicolas Vignier, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, French Guiana; Jitendra K. Singh, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

                *Correspondence: Julien Tran, ✉ JTran@ 123456mshc.org.au

                This article was submitted to Infectious Diseases: Epidemiology and Prevention, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Article
                10.3389/fpubh.2022.934962
                9814118
                36620298
                efb891a9-77ff-4115-9782-a2a1ea3e32dd
                Copyright © 2022 Tran, Fairley, Ong, Bradshaw, Aung, Maddaford, Chen, Hocking and Chow.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 03 May 2022
                : 01 December 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 11, Words: 7217
                Categories
                Public Health
                Brief Research Report

                tongue kiss,heterosexual,sex,saliva,sexually transmitted infection

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