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      Molecular Chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp70 Deliver Preproteins to the Mitochondrial Import Receptor Tom70

      , ,

      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          The role of cytosolic factors in protein targeting to mitochondria is poorly understood. Here, we show that in mammals, the cytosolic chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp70 dock onto a specialized TPR domain in the import receptor Tom70 at the outer mitochondrial membrane. This interaction serves to deliver a set of preproteins to the receptor for subsequent membrane translocation dependent on the Hsp90 ATPase. Disruption of the chaperone/Tom70 recognition inhibits the import of these preproteins into mitochondria. In yeast, Hsp70 rather than Hsp90 is used in import, and Hsp70 docking is required for the formation of a productive preprotein/Tom70 complex. We outline a novel mechanism in which chaperones are recruited for a specific targeting event by a membrane-bound receptor.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein.

          Efficient folding of many newly synthesized proteins depends on assistance from molecular chaperones, which serve to prevent protein misfolding and aggregation in the crowded environment of the cell. Nascent chain--binding chaperones, including trigger factor, Hsp70, and prefoldin, stabilize elongating chains on ribosomes in a nonaggregated state. Folding in the cytosol is achieved either on controlled chain release from these factors or after transfer of newly synthesized proteins to downstream chaperones, such as the chaperonins. These are large, cylindrical complexes that provide a central compartment for a single protein chain to fold unimpaired by aggregation. Understanding how the thousands of different proteins synthesized in a cell use this chaperone machinery has profound implications for biotechnology and medicine.
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            Structure of TPR domain-peptide complexes: critical elements in the assembly of the Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone machine.

            The adaptor protein Hop mediates the association of the molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. The TPR1 domain of Hop specifically recognizes the C-terminal heptapeptide of Hsp70 while the TPR2A domain binds the C-terminal pentapeptide of Hsp90. Both sequences end with the motif EEVD. The crystal structures of the TPR-peptide complexes show the peptides in an extended conformation, spanning a groove in the TPR domains. Peptide binding is mediated by electrostatic interactions with the EEVD motif, with the C-terminal aspartate acting as a two-carboxylate anchor, and by hydrophobic interactions with residues upstream of EEVD. The hydrophobic contacts with the peptide are critical for specificity. These results explain how TPR domains participate in the ordered assembly of Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone complexes.
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              A mitochondrial specific stress response in mammalian cells.

              Cells respond to a wide variety of stresses through the transcriptional activation of genes that harbour stress elements within their promoters. While many of these elements are shared by genes encoding proteins representative of all subcellular compartments, cells can also respond to stresses that are specific to individual organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum un folded protein response. Here we report on the discovery and characterization of a mitochondrial stress response in mammalian cells. We find that the accumulation of unfolded protein within the mitochondrial matrix results in the transcriptional upregulation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial stress proteins such as chaperonin 60, chaperonin 10, mtDnaJ and ClpP, but not those encoding stress proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum. Analysis of the chaperonin 60/10 bidirectional promoter identified a CHOP element as the mitochondrial stress response element. Dominant-negative mutant forms of CHOP and overexpression of CHOP revealed that this transcription factor, in association with C/EBPbeta, regulates expression of mitochondrial stress genes in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                January 2003
                January 2003
                : 112
                : 1
                : 41-50
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01250-3
                12526792
                © 2003

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

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