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      Pharmacokinetic Study of Ferumoxytol: A New Iron Replacement Therapy in Normal Subjects and Hemodialysis Patients

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          Background: Currently available intravenous iron preparations are not ideal, either because of safety concerns or dose limitations. We investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of ferumoxytol, a new iron replacement therapy, in normal subjects and hemodialysis patients. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, ascending-dose study in normal volunteers (n = 41), 6 subjects received placebo, and 8 subjects each received ferumoxytol, at 1, 2 or 4 mg iron/kg, injected at 60 mg iron/min. The remaining subjects received 4 mg iron/kg at injection rates of 90 (n = 3), 180 (n = 3) or 1,800 mg iron/min (n = 5). In the second, open-label, ascending-dose study, 20 hemodialysis patients received 125 or 250 mg of iron over 5 min. Results: In normal subjects, the blood half-life of ferumoxytol increased with increasing dose from 9.3 to 14.5 h (p < 0.05) but not with increasing rate of injection. The drug half-life in hemodialysis patients was similar to normal subjects. Ferumoxytol was not removed with hemodialysis. Serum iron (p < 0.001), transferrin saturation (p < 0.001) and ferritin increased in both populations. No serious adverse events were attributable to ferumoxytol. Conclusion: Ferumoxytol was well tolerated in this study. Its pharmacokinetic properties and simplicity of administration suggest that it will be an attractive form of iron replacement therapy.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Correction of the anemia of end-stage renal disease with recombinant human erythropoietin. Results of a combined phase I and II clinical trial.

          We administered recombinant human erythropoietin to 25 anemic patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing hemodialysis. The recombinant human erythropoietin was given intravenously three times weekly after dialysis, and transfusion requirements, hematocrit, ferrokinetics, and reticulocyte responses were monitored. Over a range of doses between 15 and 500 units per kilogram of body weight, dose-dependent increases in effective erythropoiesis were noted. At 500 units per kilogram, changes in the hematocrit of as much as 10 percentage points were seen within three weeks, and increases in ferrokinetics of three to four times basal values, as measured by erythron transferrin uptake, were observed. Of 18 patients receiving effective doses of recombinant human erythropoietin, 12 who had required transfusions no longer needed them, and in 11 the hematocrit increased to 35 percent or more. Along with the rise in hematocrit, four patients had an increase in blood pressure, and a majority had increases in serum creatinine and potassium levels. No organ dysfunction or other toxic effects were observed, and no antibodies to the recombinant hormone were formed. These results demonstrate that recombinant human erythropoietin is effective, can eliminate the need for transfusions with their risks of immunologic sensitization, infection, and iron overload, and can restore the hematocrit to normal in many patients with the anemia of end-stage renal disease.
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            A randomized controlled study of iron supplementation in patients treated with erythropoietin.

            In view of current uncertainty regarding the optimum route for iron supplementation in patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), a prospective randomized controlled study was designed to investigate this issue. All iron-replete renal failure patients commencing EPO who had a hemoglobin concentration < 8.5 g/dl and an initial serum ferritin level of 100 to 800 micrograms/liter were randomized into three groups with different iron supplementation: Group 1, i.v. iron dextran 5 ml every 2 weeks; Group 2, oral ferrous sulphate 200 mg tds; Group 3, no iron. All patients were treated with 25 U/kg of EPO thrice weekly subcutaneously. The hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte count, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and EPO dose were monitored every two weeks for the first four months. Thirty-seven patients entered the study (12 i.v., 13 oral, 12 no iron). The three groups were equivalent with regard to age, sex, and other demographic details. Even allowing for dosage adjustments, the hemoglobin response in the group receiving i.v. iron (7.3 +/- 0.8 to 11.9 +/- 1.2 g/dl) was significantly greater than that for the other two groups (7.2 +/- 1.1 to 10.2 +/- 1.4 g/dl and 7.3 +/- 0.8 to 9.9 +/- 1.6 g/dl for Groups 2 and 3, respectively; P < 0.005 for both groups vs. Group 1 at 16 weeks). There was no difference between the groups supplemented with oral iron and no iron. Serum ferritin levels remained constant in those receiving i.v. iron (345 +/- 273 to 359 +/- 140 micrograms/liter), in contrast to the other two groups in which ferritin levels fell significantly (309 +/- 218 to 116 +/- 87 micrograms/liter and 458 +/- 206 to 131 +/- 121 micrograms/liter for Groups 2 and 3, respectively; P < 0.0005 for Group 1 vs. Group 2, and P < 0.005 for Group 1 vs. Group 3 at 16 weeks). Dosage requirements of EPO were less in Group 1 (1202 +/- 229 U/kg/16 weeks) than in Group 2 (1294 +/- 314 U/kg/16 weeks) or Group 3 (1475 +/- 311 U/kg/16 weeks; P < 0.05 vs. Group 1). The results of this study suggest that, even in iron-replete patients, those supplemented with i.v. iron have an enhanced hemoglobin response to EPO with better maintenance of iron stores and lower dosage requirements of EPO, compared with those patients receiving oral iron and no iron supplementation.
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              Parenteral iron nephrotoxicity: potential mechanisms and consequences.

              Parenteral iron administration is a mainstay of anemia management in renal disease patients. However, concerns of potential iron toxicity persist. Thus, this study was conducted to more fully gauge iron toxicologic profiles and potential determinants thereof. Isolated mouse proximal tubule segments (PTS) or cultured proximal tubular [human kidney (HK-2)] cells were exposed to four representative iron preparations [iron sucrose (FeS), iron dextran (FeD), iron gluconate (FeG), or iron oligosaccharide (FeOS)] over a broad dosage range (0, 30 to 1000 microg iron/mL). Cell injury was assessed by lactate deyhdrogenase (LDH) release, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) reductions, cell cytochrome c efflux, and/or electron microscopy. In vivo toxicity (after 2 mg intravenous iron injections) was assessed by plasma/renal/cardiac lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA)], renal ferritin (protein)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (mRNA) expression, electron microscopy, or postiron injection PTS susceptibility to attack. In each test, iron evoked in vitro toxicity, but up to 30x differences in severity (e.g., ATP declines) were observed (FeS > FeG > FeD = FeOS). The in vitro differences paralleled degrees of cell (HK-2) iron uptake. In vivo correlates of iron toxicity included variable increases in renal MDA, ferritin, and HO-1 mRNA levels. Again, these changes appeared to parallel in vivo (glomerular) iron uptake (seen with FeS and FeG, but not with FeD or FeOS). Iron also effected in vivo alterations in proximal tubule cell homeostasis, as reflected by the "downstream" emergence of tubule resistance to in vitro oxidant attack. Parenteral iron formulations have potent, but highly variable, cytotoxic potentials which appear to parallel degrees of cell iron uptake (FeS > FeG > FeD or FeOS). That in vitro injury can be expressed at clinically relevant iron concentrations, and that in vivo glomerular iron deposition/injury may result, suggest caution is warranted if these agents are to be administered to patients with active renal disease.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2005
                18 August 2005
                : 25
                : 4
                : 400-410
                aDivision of Nephrology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Va.; bAdvanced Magnetics, Inc., Cambridge, Mass.; cJersey Shore Medical Center, Neptune, N.J., and dRenal Associates of Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge, La., USA
                87212 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:400–410
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 46, Pages: 11
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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