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      Cardiac Mechano-Electric Coupling: Acute Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Heart Rate and Rhythm

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      Physiological Reviews

      American Physiological Society

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          Abstract

          The heart is vital for biological function in almost all chordates, including humans. It beats continually throughout our life, supplying the body with oxygen and nutrients while removing waste products. If it stops, so does life. The heartbeat involves precise coordination of the activity of billions of individual cells, as well as their swift and well-coordinated adaption to changes in physiological demand. Much of the vital control of cardiac function occurs at the level of individual cardiac muscle cells, including acute beat-by-beat feedback from the local mechanical environment to electrical activity (as opposed to longer term changes in gene expression and functional or structural remodeling). This process is known as mechano-electric coupling (MEC). In the current review, we present evidence for, and implications of, MEC in health and disease in human; summarize our understanding of MEC effects gained from whole animal, organ, tissue, and cell studies; identify potential molecular mediators of MEC responses; and demonstrate the power of computational modeling in developing a more comprehensive understanding of ‟what makes the heart tick.ˮ

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          Most cited references 671

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          Piezos are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels

          Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in physiology. Biological processes including sensing touch and sound waves require yet unidentified cation channels that detect pressure. Mouse piezo1 (mpiezo1) and mpiezo2 induce mechanically activated cationic currents in cells; however, it is unknown if piezos are pore-forming ion channels or modulate ion channels. We show that Drosophila piezo (dpiezo) also induces mechanically activated currents in cells, but through channels with remarkably distinct pore properties including sensitivity to the pore blocker ruthenium red and single channel conductances. mpiezo1 assembles as a ~1.2 million-Dalton tetramer, with no evidence of other proteins in this complex. Finally, purified mpiezo1 reconstituted into asymmetric lipid bilayers and liposomes forms ruthenium red-sensitive ion channels. These data demonstrate that piezos are an evolutionarily conserved ion channel family involved in mechanotransduction.
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            Is Open Access

            Calcium and Excitation-Contraction Coupling in the Heart

            Cardiac contractility is regulated by changes in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). Normal function requires that [Ca2+]i be sufficiently high in systole and low in diastole. Much of the Ca needed for contraction comes from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and is released by the process of calcium-induced calcium release. The factors that regulate and fine-tune the initiation and termination of release are reviewed. The precise control of intracellular Ca cycling depends on the relationships between the various channels and pumps that are involved. We consider 2 aspects: (1) structural coupling: the transporters are organized within the dyad, linking the transverse tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum and ensuring close proximity of Ca entry to sites of release. (2) Functional coupling: where the fluxes across all membranes must be balanced such that, in the steady state, Ca influx equals Ca efflux on every beat. The remainder of the review considers specific aspects of Ca signaling, including the role of Ca buffers, mitochondria, Ca leak, and regulation of diastolic [Ca2+]i.
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              Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.

              Of the ions involved in the intricate workings of the heart, calcium is considered perhaps the most important. It is crucial to the very process that enables the chambers of the heart to contract and relax, a process called excitation-contraction coupling. It is important to understand in quantitative detail exactly how calcium is moved around the various organelles of the myocyte in order to bring about excitation-contraction coupling if we are to understand the basic physiology of heart function. Furthermore, spatial microdomains within the cell are important in localizing the molecular players that orchestrate cardiac function.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Physiological Reviews
                Physiological Reviews
                American Physiological Society
                0031-9333
                1522-1210
                January 01 2021
                January 01 2021
                : 101
                : 1
                : 37-92
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology and Biophysics and School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Institute for Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine, University Heart Centre Freiburg/Bad Krozingen, Medical Faculty of the University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; and CIBSS–Centre for Integrative Biological Signalling Studies, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
                Article
                10.1152/physrev.00036.2019
                © 2021

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