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A simple and inexpensive quantitative technique for determining chemical sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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      Abstract

      Chemical sensitivity, growth inhibition in response to a chemical, is a powerful phenotype that can reveal insight into diverse cellular processes. Chemical sensitivity assays are used in nearly every model system, however the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a particularly powerful platform for discovery and mechanistic insight from chemical sensitivity assays. Here we describe a simple and inexpensive approach to determine chemical sensitivity quantitatively in yeast in the form of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) using common laboratory equipment. We demonstrate the utility of this method using chemicals commonly used to monitor changes in membrane traffic. When compared to traditional agar-based plating methods, this method is more sensitive and can detect defects not apparent using other protocols. Additionally, this method reduces the experimental protocol from five days to 18 hours for the toxic amino acid canavanine. Furthermore, this method provides reliable results using lower amounts of chemicals. Finally, this method is easily adapted to additional chemicals as demonstrated with an engineered system that activates the spindle assembly checkpoint in response to rapamycin with differing efficiencies. This approach provides researchers with a cost-effective method to perform chemical genetic profiling without specialized equipment.

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      Additional modules for versatile and economical PCR-based gene deletion and modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

      An important recent advance in the functional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes is the development of the one-step PCR-mediated technique for deletion and modification of chromosomal genes. This method allows very rapid gene manipulations without requiring plasmid clones of the gene of interest. We describe here a new set of plasmids that serve as templates for the PCR synthesis of fragments that allow a variety of gene modifications. Using as selectable marker the S. cerevisiae TRP1 gene or modules containing the heterologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe his5+ or Escherichia coli kan(r) gene, these plasmids allow gene deletion, gene overexpression (using the regulatable GAL1 promoter), C- or N-terminal protein tagging [with GFP(S65T), GST, or the 3HA or 13Myc epitope], and partial N- or C-terminal deletions (with or without concomitant protein tagging). Because of the modular nature of the plasmids, they allow efficient and economical use of a small number of PCR primers for a wide variety of gene manipulations. Thus, these plasmids should further facilitate the rapid analysis of gene function in S. cerevisiae.
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        The chemical genomic portrait of yeast: uncovering a phenotype for all genes.

        Genetics aims to understand the relation between genotype and phenotype. However, because complete deletion of most yeast genes ( approximately 80%) has no obvious phenotypic consequence in rich medium, it is difficult to study their functions. To uncover phenotypes for this nonessential fraction of the genome, we performed 1144 chemical genomic assays on the yeast whole-genome heterozygous and homozygous deletion collections and quantified the growth fitness of each deletion strain in the presence of chemical or environmental stress conditions. We found that 97% of gene deletions exhibited a measurable growth phenotype, suggesting that nearly all genes are essential for optimal growth in at least one condition.
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          Integration of chemical-genetic and genetic interaction data links bioactive compounds to cellular target pathways.

          Bioactive compounds can be valuable research tools and drug leads, but it is often difficult to identify their mechanism of action or cellular target. Here we investigate the potential for integration of chemical-genetic and genetic interaction data to reveal information about the pathways and targets of inhibitory compounds. Taking advantage of the existing complete set of yeast haploid deletion mutants, we generated drug-hypersensitivity (chemical-genetic) profiles for 12 compounds. In addition to a set of compound-specific interactions, the chemical-genetic profiles identified a large group of genes required for multidrug resistance. In particular, yeast mutants lacking a functional vacuolar H(+)-ATPase show multidrug sensitivity, a phenomenon that may be conserved in mammalian cells. By filtering chemical-genetic profiles for the multidrug-resistant genes and then clustering the compound-specific profiles with a compendium of large-scale genetic interaction profiles, we were able to identify target pathways or proteins. This method thus provides a powerful means for inferring mechanism of action.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1034 1720, GRID grid.410711.2, Department of Biology, , University of North Carolina, ; Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
            [2 ]ISNI 0000000086837370, GRID grid.214458.e, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, , University of Michigan, ; Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
            [3 ]Present Address: Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2365-9716, c7hung@ucsd.edu
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            9 August 2018
            9 August 2018
            2018
            : 8
            30093662
            6085351
            30305
            10.1038/s41598-018-30305-z
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            Funding
            Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000002, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | National Institutes of Health (NIH);
            Award ID: F31GM112470
            Award ID: R01GM092741
            Award Recipient :
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