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      Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

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          Abstract

          Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant ( P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

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          Most cited references36

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          Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia.

          To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Seventeen sedentary adults aged >or=55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 [SD±4.3] years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration 5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (p<.0001), sleep latency (p=.049), sleep duration (p=.04), daytime dysfunction (p=.027), and sleep efficiency (p=.036) PSQI sub-scores compared to the control group. The physical activity group also had reductions in depressive symptoms (p=.044), daytime sleepiness (p=.02) and improvements in vitality (p=.017) compared to baseline scores. Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia.
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            A community-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome.

            Most previous estimates of the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have derived largely from treated populations, and have been biased by differential access to health care treatment linked with sex, ethnic identification, and socioeconomic status. To assess the point prevalence of CFS in an ethnically diverse random community sample. A sample of 28,673 adults in Chicago, Ill, was screened by telephone, and those with CFS-like symptoms were medically evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND ANALYSES: Self-report questionnaires, psychiatric evaluations, and complete medical examinations with laboratory testing were used to diagnose patients with CFS. Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were used to delineate the overall rate of CFS in this population, and its relative prevalence was subcategorized by sex, ethnic identification, age, and socioeconomic status. There was a 65.1% completion rate for the telephone interviews during the first phase of the study. Findings indicated that CFS occurs in about 0.42% (95% confidence interval, 0.29%-0.56%) of this random community-based sample. The highest levels of CFS were consistently found among women, minority groups, and persons with lower levels of education and occupational status. Chronic fatigue syndrome is a common chronic health condition, especially for women, occurring across ethnic groups. Earlier findings suggesting that CFS is a syndrome primarily affecting white, middle-class patients were not supported by our findings.
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              Validation of the Chinese-Cantonese version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale and comparison with the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression.

              The aim of this study was to validate the Chinese-Cantonese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and to compare it with the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD) as a screening tool for depressive disorders in general hospital in-patients. The Chinese-Cantonese version of the HADS was administered to general hospital in-patients seen on a consultation basis, and psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R. The subjects were further rated independently with the HRSD. The Chinese-Cantonese version of the HADS was found to have good internal consistency and external validity, with favourable sensitivity and specificity for screening for psychiatric disorders. However, its performance was marginally inferior to that of the HRSD. The scale also performed poorly in identifying major depression. The HADS has limitations with regard to identification of depressive disorders. However, despite its shortcomings, it remains one of the best paper-and-pencil tests for screening psychiatric disorders in the medically ill.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2014
                25 December 2014
                25 December 2014
                : 2014
                : 106048
                Affiliations
                1Centre on Behavioral Health, The University of Hong Kong, 2/F, Hong Kong Jockey Club Building for Interdisciplinary Research, 5 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
                2Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                3Department of Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                4Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA, USA
                Author notes
                *Siu-man Ng: ngsiuman@ 123456hku.hk and
                *Cecilia L. W. Chan: cecichan@ 123456hku.hk

                Academic Editor: David Mischoulon

                Article
                10.1155/2014/106048
                4290154
                25610473
                efdb8d8a-8507-413a-ab56-1c1f9291188c
                Copyright © 2014 Jessie S. M. Chan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 8 August 2014
                : 16 November 2014
                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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