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      Comparison of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet and a higher-fat DASH diet on blood pressure and lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized controlled trial1–3

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      The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

      American Society for Nutrition

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          Abstract

          The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) dietary pattern, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, significantly lowers blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia.

          Low-carbohydrate diets have been used to manage obesity and its metabolic consequences. The objective was to study the effects of moderate carbohydrate restriction on atherogenic dyslipidemia before and after weight loss and in conjunction with a low or high dietary saturated fat intake. After 1 wk of consuming a basal diet, 178 men with a mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 29.2 +/- 2.0 were randomly assigned to consume diets with carbohydrate contents of 54% (basal diet), 39%, or 26% of energy and with a low saturated fat content (7-9% of energy); a fourth group consumed a diet with 26% of energy as carbohydrate and 15% as saturated fat. After 3 wk, the mean weight loss (5.12 +/- 1.83 kg) was induced in all diet groups by a reduction of approximately 1000 kcal/d for 5 wk followed by 4 wk of weight stabilization. The 26%-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diet reduced triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, small LDL mass, and total:HDL cholesterol and increased LDL peak diameter. These changes were significantly different from those with the 54%-carbohydrate diet. After subsequent weight loss, the changes in all these variables were significantly greater and the reduction in LDL cholesterol was significantly greater with the 54%-carbohydrate diet than with the 26%-carbohydrate diet. With the 26%-carbohydrate diet, lipoprotein changes with the higher saturated fat intakes were not significantly different from those with the lower saturated fat intakes, except for LDL cholesterol, which decreased less with the higher saturated fat intake because of an increase in mass of large LDL. Moderate carbohydrate restriction and weight loss provide equivalent but nonadditive approaches to improving atherogenic dyslipidemia. Moreover, beneficial lipid changes resulting from a reduced carbohydrate intake were not significant after weight loss.
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            Dietary adherence and weight loss success among overweight women: results from the A TO Z weight loss study.

            Dietary adherence has been implicated as an important factor in the success of dieting strategies; however, studies assessing and investigating its association with weight loss success are scarce. We aimed to document the level of dietary adherence using measured diet data and to examine its association with weight loss success. Secondary analysis was performed using data from 181 free-living overweight/obese women (mean+/-s.d. age=43+/-5 years, body mass index=31+/-4 kg m(-2)) participating in a 1-year randomized clinical trial (the A TO Z study) comparing popular weight loss diets (Atkins, Zone and Ornish). Participants' dietary adherence was assessed as the difference between their respective assigned diet's recommended macronutrient goals and their self-reported intake. Association between dietary adherence and 12-month weight change was computed using Spearman's correlations. Differences in baseline characteristics and macronutrient intake between the most and least adherent tertiles for diet groups were compared using t-tests. Within each diet group, adherence score was significantly correlated with 12-month weight change (Atkins, r(s)=0.42, P=0.0003; Zone, r(s)=0.34, P=0.009 and Ornish, r(s)=0.38, P=0.004). Twelve-month weight change in the most vs least adherent tertiles, respectively, was -8.3+/-5.6 vs -1.9+/-5.8 kg, P=0.0006 (Atkins); -3.7+/-6.3 vs -0.4+/-6.8 kg, P=0.12 (Zone) and -6.5+/-6.8 vs -1.7+/-7.9 kg, P=0.06 (Ornish). Regardless of assigned diet groups, 12-month weight change was greater in the most adherent compared to the least adherent tertiles. These results suggest that strategies to increase adherence may deserve more emphasis than the specific macronutrient composition of the weight loss diet itself in supporting successful weight loss.
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              Direct determination of lipoprotein particle sizes and concentrations by ion mobility analysis.

              Current methods for measuring the concentrations of lipoprotein particles and their distributions in particle subpopulations are not standardized. We describe here and validate a new gas-phase differential electrophoretic macromolecular mobility-based method (ion mobility, or IM) for direct quantification of lipoprotein particles, from small, dense HDL to large, buoyant, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). After an ultracentrifugation step to remove albumin, we determined the size and concentrations of lipoprotein particles in serum samples using IM. Scan time is 2 min and covers a particle range of 17.2-540.0 A. After scanning, data are pooled by totaling the particle number across a predetermined size range that corresponds to particular lipoprotein subclasses. IM results were correlated with those of standard methods for cholesterol and apolipoprotein analysis. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation for LDL particle size were <1.0%. The intra- and interassay variation for LDL and HDL particle subfraction measurements was <20%. IM-measured non-HDL correlated well with apolipoprotein B (r = 0.92). The IM method provides accurate, reproducible, direct determination of size and concentration for a broad range of lipoprotein particles. Use of this methodology in studies of patients with cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states will permit testing of its clinical utility for risk assessment and management of these conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
                American Society for Nutrition
                0002-9165
                1938-3207
                February 2016
                February 01 2016
                December 30 2015
                February 2016
                February 01 2016
                December 30 2015
                : 103
                : 2
                : 341-347
                Article
                10.3945/ajcn.115.123281
                4733264
                26718414
                © 2015

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