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      An Appropriate Indication for the Initiation of Beta-Blocker Therapy in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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          Backgrounds: Although long-term treatment with beta-blockers has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), patient re- sponses are heterogeneous. Methods: To establish the appropriate indication for the initiation of beta-blocker therapy, we retrospectively analyzed 38 DCM patients treated with beta-blockers (metoprolol or carvedilol) and examined differences in baseline profiles between patients who could continue the therapy (responders) and those who could not (non-responders). Results: In 13 non-responders, the duration from onset of symptoms to beta-blocker initiation was longer (p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure was lower (p < 0.001), serum sodium concentration was lower (p < 0.05), left ventricular posterior wall thickness was thinner (p < 0.05), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher (p < 0.05) and left ventricular wall stress was lower (p < 0.05) than in 25 responders. In 19 patients receiving carvedilol, 5 non-responders showed higher levels of human atrial natriuretic peptide (p < 0.05) and brain natriuretic peptide (p < 0.01) than 13 responders. Discriminant analysis with a linear discriminant function showed the following equation predicted response to beta-blocker therapy: h = 0.004 × systolic blood pressure – 0.002 × brain natriuretic peptide + 0.667 (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.67, p < 0.001). The probability of predicting the response was 94.1% with h ≧0.5. Conclusion: We conclude that h≧0.5 is the appropriate indication for the initiation of beta-blocker therapy in DCM.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Brain natriuretic peptide as a novel cardiac hormone in humans. Evidence for an exquisite dual natriuretic peptide system, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide.

           H Yasue,  M Mukoyama,  K Obata (1991)
          Using a specific radioimmunoassay for human brain natriuretic peptide (hBNP) with a monoclonal antibody, we have investigated its synthesis, secretion, and clearance in comparison with those of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Mean BNP-like immunoreactivity (-LI) levels in normal atrium and ventricle were 250 and 18 pmol/g, respectively. The plasma BNP-LI level in normal subjects was 0.90 +/- 0.07 fmol/ml, which was 16% of the ANP-LI level. In contrast, the plasma BNP-LI level markedly increased in patients with CHF in proportion to its severity, and surpassed the ANP-LI level in severe cases. There was a significant step-up of the plasma BNP-LI level in the coronary sinus (CS) compared with that in the aortic root (Ao) and the difference between these BNP-LI levels, delta(CS-Ao)BNP, also increased with the severity of CHF. In addition, the step-up of the BNP-LI level in the anterior interventricular vein [delta(AIV-Ao)BNP] was comparable to delta(CS-Ao)BNP, indicating that BNP is secreted mainly from the ventricle. Predominant BNP synthesis in the ventricle was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Catheterization and pharmacokinetic studies revealed that hBNP is cleared from the circulation more slowly than alpha-hANP; this was in part attributed to lower (about 7%) binding affinity of hBNP to clearance receptors than that of alpha-hANP. A predominant molecular form of BNP-LI in the heart and plasma was a 3-kD form corresponding to hBNP. These results indicate that BNP is a novel cardiac hormone secreted predominantly from the ventricle, and that the synthesis, secretion and clearance of BNP differ from those of ANP, suggesting discrete physiological and pathophysiological roles of BNP in a dual natriuretic peptide system.
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            Treatment of heart failure guided by plasma aminoterminal brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) concentrations

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              Effect of chronic beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in congestive cardiomyopathy.

              Adrenergic beta-blocking agents were given to 7 patients with advanced congestive cardiomyopathy who had tachycardia at rest (98 plus or minus 13 beats/min). The patients were on beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for 2 to 12 months (average 5-4 months). One patient was given alprenolol 50 mg twice daily and the other patients were given practolol 50 to 400 mg twice daily. Virus infection had occurred in 6 of the patients before the onset of symptoms of cardiac disease. All patients were in a steady state or were progressively deteriorating at the start of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. Conventional treatment with digitalis and diuretics was unaltered or reduced during treatment with beta-blocking agents. An improvement was seen in their clinical condition shortly after administration of the drugs. Continued treatment resulted in an increase in physical working capacity and a reduction of heart size. Noninvasive investigations including phonocardiogram, carotid pulse curve, apex cardiogram, and echocardiogram showed improved ventricular function in all cases. The present study indicates that adrenergic beta-blocking agents can improve heart function in at lease some patients with congestive cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, it is suggested that increased catecholamine activity may be an important factor for the development of this disease, as has been shown in animal experiments.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2005
                24 November 2005
                : 105
                : 1
                : 61-66
                Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Medicine, Saga University Faculty of Medicine, Saga, Japan
                89295 Cardiology 2006;105:61–66
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 6
                Original Research


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