Backgrounds: Although long-term treatment with beta-blockers has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), patient re- sponses are heterogeneous. Methods: To establish the appropriate indication for the initiation of beta-blocker therapy, we retrospectively analyzed 38 DCM patients treated with beta-blockers (metoprolol or carvedilol) and examined differences in baseline profiles between patients who could continue the therapy (responders) and those who could not (non-responders). Results: In 13 non-responders, the duration from onset of symptoms to beta-blocker initiation was longer (p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure was lower (p < 0.001), serum sodium concentration was lower (p < 0.05), left ventricular posterior wall thickness was thinner (p < 0.05), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher (p < 0.05) and left ventricular wall stress was lower (p < 0.05) than in 25 responders. In 19 patients receiving carvedilol, 5 non-responders showed higher levels of human atrial natriuretic peptide (p < 0.05) and brain natriuretic peptide (p < 0.01) than 13 responders. Discriminant analysis with a linear discriminant function showed the following equation predicted response to beta-blocker therapy: h = 0.004 × systolic blood pressure – 0.002 × brain natriuretic peptide + 0.667 (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.67, p < 0.001). The probability of predicting the response was 94.1% with h ≧0.5. Conclusion: We conclude that h≧0.5 is the appropriate indication for the initiation of beta-blocker therapy in DCM.