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      Training future generations to deliver evidence‐based conservation and ecosystem management

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      Ecological Solutions and Evidence

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          The need for evidence-based conservation.

          Much of current conservation practice is based upon anecdote and myth rather than upon the systematic appraisal of the evidence, including experience of others who have tackled the same problem. We suggest that this is a major problem for conservationists and requires a rethinking of the manner in which conservation operates. There is an urgent need for mechanisms that review available information and make recommendations to practitioners. We suggest a format for web-based databases that could provide the required information in accessible form.
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            Do conservation managers use scientific evidence to support their decision-making?

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              Achieving Conservation Science that Bridges the Knowledge–Action Boundary

              There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge–action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which both advances scientific understanding and contributes to decision making. Logrando que la Ciencia de la Conservación Trasponga la Frontera Conocimiento-Acción Resumen Hay muchas barreras para utilizar ciencia para informar a la política y práctica de la conservación. Los científicos de la conservación que desean producir ciencia relevante para el manejo deben equilibrar esta meta con el imperativo de demostrar novedad y rigor en su ciencia. Los tomadores de decisiones que buscan que sus decisiones se basen en evidencias deben equilibrar el deseo de conocimientos con la necesidad de actuar a pesar de la incertidumbre. La generación de ciencia que informe efectivamente a las decisiones de manejo requiere que la producción de información (los componentes del conocimiento) sea sobresaliente (relevante y oportuna), creíble (autoritativa, verosímil y confiable) y legítima (desarrollada mediante un proceso que considera los valores y perspectivas de todos los actores relevantes) a la vista tanto de investigadores como de tomadores de decisiones. Percibimos tres retos clave para quienes desean generar ciencia de la conservación que logre estas tres características de la información. Primero, las audiencias científicas y de manejo pueden tener percepciones contrastantes sobre la relevancia de la investigación. Segundo, la credibilidad se puede lograr a costa de la relevancia y legitimidad a la vista de los tomadores de decisiones y tercero, los diferentes actores pueden tener percepciones conflictivas sobre los que constituye información legítima. Resaltamos cuatro marcos institucionales que pueden facilitar que la ciencia informe al manejo: organizaciones de frontera (organizaciones ambientales que trasponen la frontera entre la ciencia y el manejo), investigadores científicos insertados en agencias de manejo de recursos, vínculos formales entre tomadores de decisiones y científicos en instituciones enfocadas a la investigación, y programas de capacitación para profesionales de la conservación. Aunque estos no son los únicos métodos para generar ciencia que traspone fronteras, ni son mutuamente excluyentes, proporcionan mecanismos que promueven la comunicación, traslación y mediación para trasponer la frontera conocimiento-acción. Consideramos que no obstante los retos, la ciencia de la conservación debería pugnar por ser una ciencia de frontera, que incrementa el entendimiento científico y contribuye a la toma de decisiones.

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                Ecological Solutions and Evidence
                Ecological Solutions and Evidence
                January 2021
                January 25 2021
                January 2021
                : 2
                : 1
                [1 ]Department of Zoology University of Cambridge Cambridge UK
                [2 ]School of Biological Sciences University of Queensland Brisbane Queensland Australia
                [3 ]Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science University of Queensland Brisbane Queensland Australia
                [4 ]Department of Biological Sciences University of Toronto‐Scarborough Scarborough Ontario Canada
                [5 ]School of Biological Sciences Monash University Clayton Melbourne Australia
                [6 ]Department of Biology and Institute of Environmental and Interdisciplinary Science Carleton University Ottawa Ontario Canada
                [7 ]Stockholm Environment Institute Stockholm Sweden
                [8 ]Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change Berlin Germany
                [9 ]Africa Centre for Evidence University of Johannesburg Johannesburg South Africa
                [10 ]School of Natural Sciences Bangor University Gwynedd UK
                [11 ]SRUC Bucksburn Aberdeen UK
                [12 ]Bristol Zoo Gardens Bristol UK
                [13 ]Department of Wildlife and Range Management Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources CANR, KNUST Kumasi Ghana
                [14 ]Faculty of Agriculture Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Tokyo Japan
                [15 ]Department of Biology & CESAM ‐ Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies University of Aveiro Aveiro Portugal
                [16 ]School of Science Engineering and Environment University of Salford Salford UK
                [17 ]Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Macul Santiago Chile
                [18 ]Department of Geography, University College London London UK
                [19 ]School of Science Monash University Malaysia Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia
                [20 ]School of Geography Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Birmingham Edgbaston UK
                [21 ]Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD‐CSIC) Sevilla Spain
                [22 ]Department of Biology Carleton University Ottawa Ontario Canada
                [23 ]Ecology, Conservation and Zoonosis Research and Enterprise Group School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences University of Brighton Brighton UK
                [24 ]Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology University of Turin Torino Italy
                [25 ]Environmental Futures Research Institute Griffith University, Nathan Queensland Australia
                [26 ]Modelling, Evidence and Policy Group School of Natural and Environmental Science Newcastle University Newcastle UK
                [27 ]Department of Biological Sciences University of Tasmania Hobart Australia
                [28 ]Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE) School of Anthropology and Conservation University of Kent Kent UK
                [29 ]The Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies & Department of Forest & Wildlife Ecology University of Wisconsin–Madison USA
                [30 ]Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Helsinki Finland
                [31 ]SRUC Integrated Land Management Ayr UK
                [32 ]Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden
                [33 ]Centro de Modelación y Monitoreo de Ecosistemas (Center for Ecosystem Modeling and Monitoring) Santiago Centro Chile
                [34 ]Centre of Biological Diversity University of St Andrews Scotland UK
                [35 ]School of Biological and Environmental Sciences Liverpool John Moores University Liverpool UK
                [36 ]Department of Life & Environmental Sciences Faculty of Science & Technology Bournemouth University Poole UK
                [37 ]Edinburgh Napier University Edinburgh UK
                [38 ]Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp Sweden
                [39 ]College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences Oregon State University USA
                [40 ]University of Exeter Medical School Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital Truro UK
                [41 ]Geography Department Humboldt‐University Berlin Berlin Germany
                [42 ]School of Environmental Sciences University of East Anglia Norwich UK
                [43 ]Duke University Marine Laboratory Beaufort North Carolina USA
                [44 ]School of Biological Sciences University of East Anglia Norwich UK
                [45 ]World Wildlife Fund Washington District of Columbia USA
                [46 ]Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA) Trondheim Norway
                [47 ]School of Applied Sciences University of South Wales Pontypridd UK
                [48 ]Bath Spa University Bath UK
                [49 ]School of Environment and Life Sciences University of Salford Salford UK
                [50 ]Department of Zoology University of Oxford Oxford UK
                [51 ]Department of Biological and Marine Sciences University of Hull Hull UK
                [52 ]Centre for Environmental Policy Imperial College London UK
                [53 ]Foundations of Success Bethesda Maryland USA
                [54 ]Colorado State University Department of Human Dimensions of Natural Resources Fort Collins Colorado USA
                [55 ]Centre for Ecosystem Science School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences University of New South Wales Sydney Australia
                [56 ]National Institute for Environmental Studies University of Tsukuba Ibaraki Japan
                [57 ]Department of Biological Sciences Royal Holloway University of London Egham UK
                [58 ]Schools of Life Sciences and Ecology Sun Yat‐sen University Guangzhou China
                [59 ]Danube Research Institute Department of Tisza Research, Centre for Ecological Research Debrecen Hungary
                [60 ]University of Toronto‐Scarborough Scarborough Ontario Canada
                [61 ]Department of Geography and Environmental Science Liverpool Hope University Liverpool UK
                [62 ]Geography and Environment Loughborough University Loughborough UK
                [63 ]Oxford University Centre for the Environment Oxford UK
                [64 ]School of Geography Geology and the Environment Keele University Staffordshire UK
                [65 ]Ecology and Environment Research Centre Department of Natural Sciences Manchester Metropolitan University Manchester UK
                [66 ]CBASS Brunel University London Uxbridge UK
                [67 ]Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas Universidad de Chile Santiago Chile
                [68 ]Biology Department Aveiro University Aveiro Portugal
                [69 ]School of Life Sciences Anglia Ruskin University Cambridge UK
                [70 ]Faculty of Urban Environmental Sciences and Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences Tokyo Metropolitan University Tokyo Japan
                [71 ]Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Stirling Stirling UK
                [72 ]Département d'écologie et évolution Faculté de biologie et médecine Lausanne Switzerland
                [73 ]Department of Physical and Natural Sciences FLAME University Pune India
                [74 ]Department of Psychology Hunter College City University of New York New York USA
                [75 ]Graduate School of Environmental Management Pakuan University Bogor Indonesia
                [76 ]Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Baja California México
                [77 ]Harper Adams University Newport UK
                [78 ]Director Evidentiary Pty Ltd Darling South Victoria Australia
                [79 ]School of Life and Environmental Sciences Deakin University Burwood Victoria Australia
                [80 ]CIBIO/InBIO‐UP Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources University of Porto Rua Padre Armando Quintas Vairão Portugal
                [81 ]CEABN‐InBIO, Centre for Applied Ecology “Prof. Baeta Neves,” Institute of Agronomy University of Lisbon Tapada da Ajuda Lisbon Portugal
                [82 ]Centro de Ecología Caracas Venezuela
                [83 ]Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences Yokohama National University Yokohama Japan
                [84 ]Department of Forest Sciences University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland
                [85 ]School of Biological Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City Utah USA
                [86 ]Faculty of Environmental Earth Science Hokkaido University Sapporo Japan
                [87 ]Faculty of Education Cambridge UK
                [88 ]Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences The University of Tokyo Tokyo Japan
                [89 ]School of Life Sciences University of Lincoln Lincoln UK
                [90 ]Centre for Research in Biosciences University of the West of England Bristol UK
                [91 ]Department of Environmental Biology Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML) Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands
                [92 ]Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences Northumbria University Newcastle‐upon‐Tyne UK
                [93 ]Biological and Medical Sciences Oxford Brookes University Oxford UK
                [94 ]Tropical Biology Association Cambridge UK
                [95 ]Leventis Foundation Nigeria Abuja Nigeria
                [96 ]University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George British Columbia Canada
                [97 ]Agriculture Building (Room 5.07) School of Natural and Environmental Sciences Newcastle University Newcastle‐Upon‐Tyne UK
                [98 ]Lancaster Environment Centre Lancaster University Lancaster UK
                [99 ]School of Animal Rural and Environmental Science, Nottingham Trent University Southwell UK
                [100 ]CIIDIR Unidad Durango, Instituto Politécnico Nacional Durango Mexico
                © 2021





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