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      Optimizing Sampling and Extraction Methods for Plant-Parasitic and Entomopathogenic Nematodes

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      Plants

      MDPI

      index of dispersion, IPM, modelling, molecular approaches, sampling and extraction

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          Abstract

          Plant-parasitic and entomopathogenic nematodes (PPNs and EPNs) are key groups in crop production systems. This study aims at optimizing nematode sampling and extraction methods to benefit integrated pest management (IPM) through (a) management of PPNs and (b) use of EPNs. The impacts of these methods on PPNs and EPNs to achieve cost-effective and efficient IPM programs are presented. The common misuses of sampling and extraction methods are discussed. Professionals engaged in IPM should consider sampling the reliability level in the light of the intended goal, location, crop value, susceptibility, nematode species, and available funds. Logical sampling methodology should be expanded to integrate various factors that can recover extra EPN isolates with differential pathogenicity. It should seek for the best EPN-host matching. Merits of repeated baiting for EPN extraction from soil and sieving for PPN recovery from suspensions are presented. Their extraction values may be modelled to quantify the efficiency of nematode separation. The use of proper indices of dispersion to enhance the biocontrol potential of EPNs or save costs in nematicidal applications is ideally compatible with IPM programs. Selecting an extraction method may sometimes require further tests to find the best extraction method of the existing fauna and/or flora. Cons and pros of modern sampling and extraction techniques are highlighted.

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          Most cited references 66

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          A METHOD FOR OBTAINING INFECTIVE NEMATODE LARVAE FROM CULTURES.

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            • Record: found
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            Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices

             Joe N. Perry (1995)
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              Aggregation, Variance and the Mean

               L. R. TAYLOR (1961)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                plants
                Plants
                MDPI
                2223-7747
                26 March 2021
                April 2021
                : 10
                : 4
                Affiliations
                National Research Center, Plant Pathology Department, Agricultural and Biological Research Division, El-behooth St., Dokki 12622, Egypt; mahfouzian2000@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                plants-10-00629
                10.3390/plants10040629
                8066318
                33810236
                © 2021 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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