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      Factors Associated With Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Southeastern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a disease that can affect any organ or tissue. Due to its potential to cause more dangerous sequelae and the barriers to its timely diagnosis, greater clinical awareness of this disease is crucial. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with EPTB in the population of Oaxaca, Mexico.

          Methods: This is an unpaired case-control study. The cases were patients with EPTB+ while the controls were patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB+) registered in the Tuberculosis Epidemiological Surveillance System. Sociodemographic, clinical, and microbiological variables were recovered. Bivariate analyses were performed and logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR).

          Results: A total of 75 EPTB+ cases and 300 PTB+ controls were included. Of the total sample, 57.1% were men and 60.3% indigenous. The most frequent clinical presentations of EPTB+ were nodal (21.3%), miliary (21.3%), and breast (20.0%). According to logistic regression analysis, age <40 years (OR: 2.25 (95% CI: 1.13-4.49), female sex (OR: 1.92 (95% CI: 1.03-3.56)], urban residence (OR: 2.25 (95% CI: 1.11-4.55)), comorbidity with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (OR: 3.46 (95% CI: 1.31-9.10)), dyspnea (OR: 2.67 (1.22-5.82)), and adenopathy (OR: 3.38 (95% CI: 1.42-8.06)) were positively associated with EPTB+.

          Conclusion: These results can serve as a basis for screening EPTB+, thus improving the preventive and diagnostic capacity of local health services, taking as a starting point women under 40 years of age and patients with HIV/AIDS in urban areas, as well as the presence of adenopathy and dyspnea as clinical characteristics of the disease.

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          Most cited references30

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          The Global Burden of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Re-estimation Using Mathematical Modelling

          Background The existing estimate of the global burden of latent TB infection (LTBI) as “one-third” of the world population is nearly 20 y old. Given the importance of controlling LTBI as part of the End TB Strategy for eliminating TB by 2050, changes in demography and scientific understanding, and progress in TB control, it is important to re-assess the global burden of LTBI. Methods and Findings We constructed trends in annual risk in infection (ARI) for countries between 1934 and 2014 using a combination of direct estimates of ARI from LTBI surveys (131 surveys from 1950 to 2011) and indirect estimates of ARI calculated from World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates of smear positive TB prevalence from 1990 to 2014. Gaussian process regression was used to generate ARIs for country-years without data and to represent uncertainty. Estimated ARI time-series were applied to the demography in each country to calculate the number and proportions of individuals infected, recently infected (infected within 2 y), and recently infected with isoniazid (INH)-resistant strains. Resulting estimates were aggregated by WHO region. We estimated the contribution of existing infections to TB incidence in 2035 and 2050. In 2014, the global burden of LTBI was 23.0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 20.4%–26.4%), amounting to approximately 1.7 billion people. WHO South-East Asia, Western-Pacific, and Africa regions had the highest prevalence and accounted for around 80% of those with LTBI. Prevalence of recent infection was 0.8% (95% UI: 0.7%–0.9%) of the global population, amounting to 55.5 (95% UI: 48.2–63.8) million individuals currently at high risk of TB disease, of which 10.9% (95% UI:10.2%–11.8%) was isoniazid-resistant. Current LTBI alone, assuming no additional infections from 2015 onwards, would be expected to generate TB incidences in the region of 16.5 per 100,000 per year in 2035 and 8.3 per 100,000 per year in 2050. Limitations included the quantity and methodological heterogeneity of direct ARI data, and limited evidence to inform on potential clearance of LTBI. Conclusions We estimate that approximately 1.7 billion individuals were latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) globally in 2014, just under a quarter of the global population. Investment in new tools to improve diagnosis and treatment of those with LTBI at risk of progressing to disease is urgently needed to address this latent reservoir if the 2050 target of eliminating TB is to be reached.
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            Epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the United States, 1993-2006.

            Almost one-fifth of United States tuberculosis cases are extrapulmonary; unexplained slower annual case count decreases have occurred in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), compared with annual case count decreases in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases. We describe the epidemiology of EPTB by means of US national tuberculosis surveillance data. US tuberculosis cases reported from 1993 to 2006 were classified as either EPTB or PTB. EPTB encompassed lymphatic, pleural, bone and/or joint, genitourinary, meningeal, peritoneal, and unclassified EPTB cases. We excluded cases with concurrent extrapulmonary-pulmonary tuberculosis and cases of disseminated (miliary) tuberculosis. Demographic characteristics, drug susceptibility test results, and risk factors, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, were compared for EPTB and PTB cases. Among 253,299 cases, 73.6% were PTB and 18.7% were EPTB, including lymphatic (40.4%), pleural (19.8%), bone and/or joint (11.3%), genitourinary (6.5%), meningeal (5.4%), peritoneal (4.9%), and unclassified EPTB (11.8%) cases. Compared with PTB, EPTB was associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-1.8) and foreign birth (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.5-1.6), almost equally associated with HIV status (OR, 1.1; CI, 1.1-1.1), and negatively associated with multidrug resistance (OR, 0.6; CI, 0.5-0.6) and several tuberculosis risk factors, especially homelessness (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.3-0.3) and excess alcohol use (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.3-0.3). Slower annual decreases in EPTB case counts, compared with annual decreases in PTB case counts, from 1993 through 2006 have caused EPTB to increase from 15.7% of tuberculosis cases in 1993 to 21.0% in 2006. EPTB epidemiology and risk factors differ from those of PTB, and the proportion of EPTB has increased from 1993 through 2006. Further study is needed to identify causes of the proportional increase in EPTB.
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              Epidemiology of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis among Inpatients, China, 2008–2017

              We investigated the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients admitted to Beijing Chest Hospital, Beijing, China, during January 2008–December 2017. Of 19,279 hospitalized TB patients, 33.4% (6,433) had extrapulmonary TB and 66.6% (12,846) had pulmonary TB. The most frequent forms of extrapulmonary TB observed were skeletal TB (41.1%) and pleural TB (26.0%). Younger, female patients from rural areas were more likely to have extrapulmonary TB. However, patients with diabetes mellitus were less likely to have extrapulmonary TB compared with patients without diabetes. A higher proportion of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB was observed among patients with extrapulmonary TB than among patients with pulmonary TB. We observed a large increase in MDR TB, from 17.3% to 35.7%, for pleural TB cases. The increasing rate of drug resistance among extrapulmonary TB cases highlights the need for drug susceptibility testing and the formulation of more effective regimens for extrapulmonary TB treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                6 May 2024
                May 2024
                : 16
                : 5
                : e59739
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Biological and Health Sciences, University of the Isthmus, Juchitán, MEX
                [2 ] Health and Welfare, Inter-American Conference on Social Security, Ciudad de México, MEX
                [3 ] Emerging and Epidemic Diseases, The South Border College (ECOSUR), San Cristobal de las Casas, MEX
                Author notes
                Jorge Fernando Luna-Hernández analistaver09@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.59739
                11152104
                38841000
                eff70c80-a7ba-48cf-83d5-e1384deb7a11
                Copyright © 2024, Luna-Hernández et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 5 May 2024
                Categories
                Public Health
                Epidemiology/Public Health
                Infectious Disease

                mycobacterium infections,bacterial infections,population of risk,risk factors,extrapulmonary tuberculosis,mycobacterium tuberculosis

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