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      Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study


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          An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls.

          Materials and Methods:

          Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometric and Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test.


          There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05). Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05). In addition, DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls.


          Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

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            The diagnostic applications of saliva--a review.

            This review examines the diagnostic application of saliva for systemic diseases. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers distinctive advantages over serum because it can be collected non-invasively by individuals with modest training. Furthermore, saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for the screening of large populations. Gland-specific saliva can be used for diagnosis of pathology specific to one of the major salivary glands. Whole saliva, however, is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases, since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents. These constituents are derived from the local vasculature of the salivary glands and also reach the oral cavity via the flow of gingival fluid. Analysis of saliva may be useful for the diagnosis of hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, malignant and infectious diseases, and endocrine disorders, as well as in the assessment of therapeutic levels of drugs and the monitoring of illicit drug use.
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              Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

              Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old) and 21 control children (5-12-years-old) were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

                Author and article information

                J Dent (Tehran)
                Journal of Dentistry (Tehran, Iran)
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                31 March 2010
                Winter 2010
                : 7
                : 1
                : 13-18
                [1 ]Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
                [3 ]Assistant Professor, Dental Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
                [4 ]Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author: M. Vahedi, Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. vahedi_md@ 123456yhaoo.com
                Copyright © Dental Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3.0 License (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Original Article


                diabetes mellitus, glucose, saliva, immunoglobulin a


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