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      A Prospective Open-Label Randomised Trial of Quinapril and/or Amlodipine in Progressive Non-Diabetic Renal Failure

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          Background: Treatment of hypertension slows the progression of non-diabetic nephropathies, but the optimal regimen is unknown. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are more effective than β-blockers, but their merits relative to calcium channel blockers are less clear. Methods: 73 hypertensive patients with progressive non-diabetic nephropathies were prospectively randomised to open-label quinapril (Q, n = 28), amlodipine (A, n = 28) or both drugs (Q&A, n = 17). Therapy was increased to achieve a diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Patients were followed for 4 years or until death. The primary outcome was the combined endpoint of doubling serum creatinine, starting renal replacement therapy or death. Results: There was no significant difference in the primary outcome, or in the change of glomerular filtration rate. Blood pressure was equally controlled throughout the study period. 29 (40%) patients were withdrawn from the allocated therapy (Q 39%, A 36%, Q&A 47%). Because of the large crossover between trial arms, the data were re-analysed per protocol. The effect on preventing the need for renal replacement therapy then approached significance between the groups (p = 0.089) and the combined quinapril-containing groups were less likely than the amlodipine group to achieve the primary endpoint (p = 0.038), or the individual endpoints of renal replacement therapy (p = 0.030) or doubling creatinine (p = 0.051). Conclusions: Quinapril is more effective than amlodipine at reducing the incidence of dialysis in patients with progressive renal failure, but only if they can tolerate the drug. The tolerability of these drugs in patients with advanced renal failure is poor.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial.

          Present angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor treatment fails to prevent progression of non-diabetic renal disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of combined treatment of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin-II receptor blocker, and monotherapy of each drug at its maximum dose, in patients with non-diabetic renal disease. 336 patients with non-diabetic renal disease were enrolled from one renal outpatient department in Japan. After screening and an 18-week run-in period, 263 patients were randomly assigned angiotensin-II receptor blocker (losartan, 100 mg daily), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril, 3 mg daily), or a combination of both drugs at equivalent doses. Survival analysis was done to compare the effects of each regimen on the combined primary endpoint of time to doubling of serum creatinine concentration or end-stage renal disease. Analysis was by intention to treat. Seven patients discontinued or were otherwise lost to follow-up. Ten (11%) of 85 patients on combination treatment reached the combined primary endpoint compared with 20 (23%) of 85 on trandolapril alone (hazard ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.63, p=0.018) and 20 (23%) of 86 on losartan alone (0.40, 0.17-0.69, p=0.016). Covariates affecting renal survival were combination treatment (hazard ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.63, p=0.011), age (1.30, 1.03-2.29, p=0.009), baseline renal function (1.80, 1.02-2.99, p=0.021), change in daily urinary protein excretion rate (0.58, 0.24-0.88, p=0.022), use of diuretics (0.80, 0.30-0.94, p=0.043), and antiproteinuric response to trandolapril (0.81, 0.21-0.91, p=0.039). Frequency of side-effects with combination treatment was the same as with trandolapril alone. Combination treatment safely retards progression of non-diabetic renal disease compared with monotherapy. However, since some patients reached the combined primary endpoint on combined treatment, further strategies for complete management of progressive non-diabetic renal disease need to be researched.
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            Effect of Ramipril vs Amlodipine on Renal Outcomes in Hypertensive NephrosclerosisA Randomized Controlled Trial

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              Early initiation of dialysis fails to prolong survival in patients with end-stage renal failure.

              There is a trend to start dialysis earlier in patients with chronic renal failure. Studies that suggest improved survival from earlier initiation of dialysis are flawed in that they have measured survival from start of dialysis rather than from a time point before dialysis, when patients have the same renal function. This flaw is termed lead-time bias. Using the electronic patient record at the renal unit of Glasgow Royal Infirmary, all patients were identified who had received dialysis for chronic renal failure and who had sufficient data to calculate the time point at which they reached an estimated creatinine clearance (eC(Cr)) of 20 ml/min (n = 275). This date was used to time survival. The patients were divided into early and late start groups by the median eC(Cr) for all patients at initiation of dialysis, which was 8.3 ml/min. There was no significant benefit in patient survival from earlier initiation of dialysis. A Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between eC(Cr) at start of dialysis and survival (hazard ratio, 1.1; P = 0.02), i.e., patients who started dialysis with a lower eC(Cr) tended to survive longer. This relationship retained significance when gender, age, weight, presence of diabetes, mode of first dialysis, initial dialysis access, hemoglobin, serum albumin, blood leukocyte count, Wright/Khan index, and eC(Cr) at the start of dialysis were taken into account. This study fails to support a policy of earlier initiation of dialysis for patients with end-stage renal failure.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                November 2005
                06 July 2005
                : 101
                : 3
                : c139-c149
                aRenal Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary and bRenal Unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
                86714 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;101:c139–c149
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 39, Pages: 1
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