Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an auto-immune disease related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Unlike SLE it is not a spontaneous syndrome but rather an acquired one. In NLE the most common disease manifestations are a transient cutaneous lesion and cardiac conduction disturbances. The cutaneous lesions and other non-cardiac manifestations of NLE are transient and disappear about six months after birth, at the time when maternal antibodies disappear from the neonatal circulation. This fact suggests that maternal antibodies may cross the placenta leading to an inflamatory reaction in the fetal tissues. NLE is the principal cause of atria-ventricular block, when it is not associated with congenital birth defects. All the clinical studies to date correlate the heart block in NLE with the presence of certain types of circulating maternal antibodies, against the Ro/SSA nuclear proteins, in the serum of the newborn. In this paper we discuss animal models that have been developed by our and others groups to study the participation of the anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in the pathogenesis of the cardiac conduction blockades that occur in NLE.