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      Elevated Troponin Levels after Prolonged Supraventricular Tachycardia in Patient with Normal Coronary Angiography

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          Abstract

          The European Society of Cardiology and the American College of Cardiology redefined the concept of myocardial infarction in the presence of highly positive markers of myocardial injury associated with at least one of the following: ischemic symptoms; development of pathologic Q waves on the ECG or ECG changes indicative of ischemia (positive or negative deviation of the ST segment), making troponins one of the most important aspects in the evaluation and stratification of patients with chest pain in the emergency room. However, although troponin gives excellent accuracy in the identification of myocardial necrosis, it is known that it can also be elevated in a series of nonatherosclerotic heart diseases. We present the case of a 49-year-old female patient admitted to the Chest Pain Unit with a history of supraventricular tachycardia associated with chest discomfort, nausea and diaphoresis. During risk stratification, the patient presented with a high serum troponin T level (0.143 ng/ml) but with a normal coronary angiography.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Cardiac-specific troponin I levels to predict the risk of mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

          In patients with acute coronary syndromes, it is desirable to identify a sensitive serum marker that is closely related to the degree of myocardial damage, provides prognostic information, and can be measured rapidly. We studied the prognostic value of cardiac troponin I levels in patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. In a multicenter study, blood specimens from 1404 symptomatic patients were analyzed for cardiac troponin I, a serum marker not detected in the blood of healthy persons. The relation between mortality at 42 days and the level of cardiac troponin I in the specimen obtained on enrollment was determined both before and after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The mortality rate at 42 days was significantly higher in the 573 patients with cardiac troponin I levels of at least 0.4 ng per milliliter (21 deaths, or 3.7 percent) than in the 831 patients with cardiac troponin I levels below 0.4 ng per milliliter (8 deaths, or 1.0 percent; P or = 65 years). In patients with acute coronary syndromes, cardiac troponin I levels provide useful prognostic information and permit the early identification of patients with an increased risk of death.
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            Cardiac troponin T levels for risk stratification in acute myocardial ischemia. GUSTO IIA Investigators.

            The prognosis of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial ischemia is quite variable. We examined the value of serum levels of cardiac troponin T, serum creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) levels, and electrocardiographic abnormalities for risk stratification in patients with acute myocardial ischemia. We studied 855 patients within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms. Cardiac troponin T levels, CK-MB levels, and electrocardiograms were analyzed in a blinded fashion at the core laboratory. We used logistic regression to assess the usefulness of baseline levels of cardiac troponin T and CK-MB and the electrocardiographic category assigned at admission-ST-segment elevation, ST-segment depression, T-wave inversion, or the presence of confounding factors that impair the detection of ischemia (bundle-branch block and paced rhythms)-in predicting outcome. On admission, 289 of 801 patients with base-line serum samples had elevated troponin T levels (> 0.1 ng per milliliter). Mortality within 30 days was significantly higher in these patients than in patients with lower levels of troponin T (11.8 percent vs. 3.9 percent, P < 0.001). The troponin T level was the variable most strongly related to 30-day mortality (chi-square = 21, P < 0.001), followed by the electrocardiographic category (chi-square = 14, P = 0.003) and the CK-MB level (chi-square = 11, P = 0.004). Troponin T levels remained significantly predictive of 30-day mortality in a model that contained the electrocardiographic categories and CK-MB levels (chi-square = 9.2, P = 0.027). The cardiac troponin T level is a powerful, independent risk marker in patients who present with acute myocardial ischemia. It allows further stratification of risk when combined with standard measures such as electrocardiography and the CK-MB level.
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              Serum cardiac troponin T as a prognostic marker in early sepsis.

               M Overbeck,  C Spies,  V Haude (1998)
              Sepsis is the leading cause of death in the noncardiologic ICU. Maldistributed nutritive blood flow and altered convective and diffusive oxygen transport during sepsis can lead to organ dysfunction and multiple organ failure. One of the causes of myocardial dysfunction is thought to be myocardial ischemia in sepsis; however, conventional biochemical parameters to detect myocardial ischemia lack sensitivity and specificity. Serum cardiac troponin T (S-TnT) was reported to have higher sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing minor myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to investigate if and how often S-TnT is pathologically elevated in patients with sepsis and to evaluate whether S-TnT might be a prognostic marker in early sepsis. Prospective study. Surgical ICU. Twenty-six patients with sepsis were included in this study within 24 h of the onset of sepsis. The patients were allocated a priori to a high S-TnT group (S-TnT > or = 0.2 microg/L) and a low S-TnT group (S-TnT<0.2 microg/L). Blood samples for the determination of S-TnT and conventional myocardial ischemia markers as well as for adhesion molecules were drawn. Hemodynamic measurements were performed every 4 h during the first 24 h and then once per day over 7 days. S-TnT was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent sandwich assay. Eighteen patients had pathologically high S-TnT values. High S-TnT values were associated with an increased mortality rate (15/18 in the high S-TnT group vs 3/8 in the low S-TnT group; p=0.02). Significant differences between the two groups were found in the norepinephrine dosages at maximum values of S-TnT. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was significantly elevated in the high S-TnT group. As high S-TnT values were associated with an increased mortality rate, it seems reasonable to further evaluate S-TnT as a prognostic marker of myocardial ischemia in patients with sepsis under different therapeutic regimens.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                June 2006
                03 July 2006
                : 106
                : 1
                : 10-13
                Affiliations
                Hospital de Base Coronary Care Unit, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery Department, São José do Rio Preto Medical School, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil
                Article
                92449 Cardiology 2006;106:10–13
                10.1159/000092449
                16601327
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 15, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Case Report

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