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      Emerging threats and persistent conservation challenges for freshwater biodiversity : Emerging threats to freshwater biodiversity

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          Abstract

          In the 12 years since Dudgeon et al. (2006) reviewed major pressures on freshwater ecosystems, the biodiversity crisis in the world's lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams and wetlands has deepened. While lakes, reservoirs and rivers cover only 2.3% of the Earth's surface, these ecosystems host at least 9.5% of the Earth's described animal species. Furthermore, using the World Wide Fund for Nature's Living Planet Index, freshwater population declines (83% between 1970 and 2014) continue to outpace contemporaneous declines in marine or terrestrial systems. The Anthropocene has brought multiple new and varied threats that disproportionately impact freshwater systems. We document 12 emerging threats to freshwater biodiversity that are either entirely new since 2006 or have since intensified: (i) changing climates; (ii) e-commerce and invasions; (iii) infectious diseases; (iv) harmful algal blooms; (v) expanding hydropower; (vi) emerging contaminants; (vii) engineered nanomaterials; (viii) microplastic pollution; (ix) light and noise; (x) freshwater salinisation; (xi) declining calcium; and (xii) cumulative stressors. Effects are evidenced for amphibians, fishes, invertebrates, microbes, plants, turtles and waterbirds, with potential for ecosystem-level changes through bottom-up and top-down processes. In our highly uncertain future, the net effects of these threats raise serious concerns for freshwater ecosystems. However, we also highlight opportunities for conservation gains as a result of novel management tools (e.g. environmental flows, environmental DNA) and specific conservation-oriented actions (e.g. dam removal, habitat protection policies, managed relocation of species) that have been met with varying levels of success. Moving forward, we advocate hybrid approaches that manage fresh waters as crucial ecosystems for human life support as well as essential hotspots of biodiversity and ecological function. Efforts to reverse global trends in freshwater degradation now depend on bridging an immense gap between the aspirations of conservation biologists and the accelerating rate of species endangerment.

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          Most cited references 216

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          Ecological and Evolutionary Responses to Recent Climate Change

          Ecological changes in the phenology and distribution of plants and animals are occurring in all well-studied marine, freshwater, and terrestrial groups. These observed changes are heavily biased in the directions predicted from global warming and have been linked to local or regional climate change through correlations between climate and biological variation, field and laboratory experiments, and physiological research. Range-restricted species, particularly polar and mountaintop species, show severe range contractions and have been the first groups in which entire species have gone extinct due to recent climate change. Tropical coral reefs and amphibians have been most negatively affected. Predator-prey and plant-insect interactions have been disrupted when interacting species have responded differently to warming. Evolutionary adaptations to warmer conditions have occurred in the interiors of species' ranges, and resource use and dispersal have evolved rapidly at expanding range margins. Observed genetic shifts modulate local effects of climate change, but there is little evidence that they will mitigate negative effects at the species level.
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            Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk.

            An estimated 779 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, of whom 106 million (13.6%) live in irrigation schemes or in close proximity to large dam reservoirs. We identified 58 studies that examined the relation between water resources development projects and schistosomiasis, primarily in African settings. We present a systematic literature review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (1) to update at-risk populations of schistosomiasis and number of people infected in endemic countries, and (2) to quantify the risk of water resources development and management on schistosomiasis. Using 35 datasets from 24 African studies, our meta-analysis showed pooled random risk ratios of 2.4 and 2.6 for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively, among people living adjacent to dam reservoirs. The risk ratio estimate for studies evaluating the effect of irrigation on urinary schistosomiasis was in the range 0.02-7.3 (summary estimate 1.1) and that on intestinal schistosomiasis in the range 0.49-23.0 (summary estimate 4.7). Geographic stratification showed important spatial differences, idiosyncratic to the type of water resources development. We conclude that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects.
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              Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife-- Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health

               P. Daszak (2000)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biological Reviews
                Biol Rev
                Wiley
                14647931
                November 22 2018
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Fish Ecology and Conservation Physiology Laboratory, Department of Biology; Carleton University; Ottawa K1S 5B6 Canada
                [2 ]Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Behavior; Michigan State University; East Lansing MI 48824 U.S.A.
                [3 ]School of Environment and Sustainability; University of Saskatchewan; Saskatoon S7N 5C8 Canada
                [4 ]Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology; University of California; Santa Barbara CA 93117 U.S.A.
                [5 ]School of Life and Health Sciences; University Drive, Federation University Australia; Mount Helen 3350 Australia
                [6 ]Ecology & Evolutionary Biology; University of Colorado; Boulder CO 80309 U.S.A.
                [7 ]Department of Biology and School of Geography and Earth Sciences; McMaster University; Hamilton L8S 4K1 Canada
                [8 ]Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Mount Allison University; Sackville E4L 1G8 Canada
                [9 ]School of Aquatic and Fishery Science; University of Washington; Seattle WA 98195-5020 U.S.A.
                [10 ]Water Research Institute & School of Biosciences; Cardiff University; Cardiff CF10 3AX U.K.
                [11 ]Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology; Queen's University; Kingston K7L 3N6 Canada
                [12 ]Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB); Berlin 12587 Germany
                [13 ]Institute of Environmental Science; Carleton University; Ottawa K1S 5B6 Canada
                [14 ]School of Biological Sciences; The University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong China
                Article
                10.1111/brv.12480
                30467930
                © 2018

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