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      Stimulation of Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain and Toll-Like Receptors 2 to Enhance the Effect of Bacillus Calmette Guerin Immunization for Prevention of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: Protocol for a Series of Preclinical Randomized Controlled Trials

      , MD, FRCP, FRCPCH, DTM&H 1 ,
      (Reviewer), (Reviewer)
      JMIR Research Protocols
      JMIR Publications
      innate immunity, BCG, bacillus calmette guerin vaccine, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, toll-like receptors

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          Bacillus calmette guerin (BCG) immunization has been associated with a reduction in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. BCG immunization has been shown to enhance innate immunity. This effect of BCG can be explained by an enhancing effect on innate immunity.


          This study aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) BCG immunization can prevent infection with MTB, (2) prevention of infection occurs via stimulation of NOD2 (nucleotide oligomerization domain) and toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2), and (3) the effect of BCG immunization on prevention of infection with MTB can be enhanced by giving stimulators of NOD2 and TLR2.


          To detect the influence of immunization on infection rates, the ultralow dose (ULD) infection model is used. The infection rate of mice vaccinated with BCG and exposed after 6 weeks to ULD of MTB and unvaccinated mice are compared via cultures of lung homogenates and interferon (IFN) gamma release assay. If a reduced infection rate by BCG immunization is confirmed, the experiment is repeated by giving BCG combined simultaneously or in time sequence with the enhancers of innate immunity murabutide or beta-glycan. The influence of murabutide or beta-glycan alone on infection rates is investigated. To quantify the contribution of innate immunity levels of tumor necrosis factor, IFN gamma expression, histone H3 K4me3 trimethylation, and concentrations of monocytes with features of activation of innate immunity as defined by the Ly6Chigh as well as CD11b positive phenotype in immunized versus unimmunized infected and uninfected mice in the various immunization protocols is compared. The experiments will be repeated with prior application of the inhibitors of epigenetic programming of innate immunity histone methyltransferase inhibitor 5’-deoxy-5’-methylthio-adenosine and histone acetyl transferase inhibitor epigallocatechin-3-gallate. The influence of BCG on innate immunity is further corroborated by a prospective observational study in human infants.


          Investigations of derivatives of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) to enhance early immunity in the C57BL/6 mouse strain (mice aged 7 weeks) by another group used 300 micrograms per mouse of oil-associated 6-0-mycoloyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (mycol-MDP) 50/50 mixed with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant. Comparison of colony-forming unit (CFU) count in the lungs 3 weeks after aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium bovis of groups (n=5) between groups receiving mycol-MDP in oil emulsion (see above) versus controls (n=5) showed a significantly lower CFU count of 94.5 x106 (SD 22.0) in cases versus controls with 204.0 X 106 (SD 77.6). It is important to note that after elimination of T-cells in this model, a reduction of CFU in lungs of mice treated with mycol-MDP persisted albeit without statistical significance, which was possibly related to the small number of animals used.


          Demonstration of a reduction of MTB infection by enhancement of innate immunity could show a new approach to improving vaccine efficacy against this pathogen.

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          Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis

          Objectives To determine whether BCG vaccination protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as assessed by interferon γ release assays (IGRA) in children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of electronic databases 1950 to November 2013, checking of reference lists, hand searching of journals, and contact with experts. Setting Community congregate settings and households. Inclusion criteria Vaccinated and unvaccinated children aged under 16 with known recent exposure to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Children were screened for infection with M tuberculosis with interferon γ release assays. Data extraction Study results relating to diagnostic accuracy were extracted and risk estimates were combined with random effects meta-analysis. Results The primary analysis included 14 studies and 3855 participants. The estimated overall risk ratio was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.92), indicating a protective efficacy of 19% against infection among vaccinated children after exposure compared with unvaccinated children. The observed protection was similar when estimated with the two types of interferon γ release assays (ELISpot or QuantiFERON). Restriction of the analysis to the six studies (n=1745) with information on progression to active tuberculosis at the time of screening showed protection against infection of 27% (risk ratio 0.73, 0.61 to 0.87) compared with 71% (0.29, 0.15 to 0.58) against active tuberculosis. Among those infected, protection against progression to disease was 58% (0.42, 0.23 to 0.77). Conclusions BCG protects against M tuberculosis infection as well as progression from infection to disease. Trial registration PROSPERO registration No CRD42011001698 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).
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            Trained Immunity or Tolerance: Opposing Functional Programs Induced in Human Monocytes after Engagement of Various Pattern Recognition Receptors

            Upon priming with Candida albicans or with the fungal cell wall component β-glucan, monocytes respond with an increased cytokine production upon restimulation, a phenomenon termed “trained immunity.” In contrast, the prestimulation of monocytes with lipopolysaccharide has long been known to induce tolerance. Because the vast majority of commensal microorganisms belong to bacterial or viral phyla, we sought to systematically investigate the functional reprogramming of monocytes induced by the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with various bacterial or viral ligands. Monocytes were functionally programmed for either enhanced (training) or decreased (tolerance) cytokine production, depending on the type and concentration of ligand they encountered. The functional reprogramming of monocytes was also associated with cell shape, granulocity, and cell surface marker modifications. The training effect required p38- and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, with specific signaling patterns directing the functional fate of the cell. The long-term effects on the function of monocytes were mediated by epigenetic events, with both histone methylation and acetylation inhibitors blocking the training effects. In conclusion, our experiments identify the ability of monocytes to acquire adaptive characteristics after prior activation with a wide variety of ligands. Trained immunity and tolerance are two distinct and opposing functional programs induced by the specific microbial ligands engaging the monocytes.
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              Neutrophil-mediated innate immune resistance to mycobacteria.

              Neutrophils contain antimicrobial peptides with antituberculous activity, but their contribution to immune resistance to tuberculosis (TB) infection has not been previously investigated to our knowledge. We determined differential white cell counts in peripheral blood of 189 adults who had come into contact with patients diagnosed with active TB in London, United Kingdom, and evaluated them for evidence of TB infection and capacity to restrict mycobacterial growth in whole-blood assays. Risk of TB infection was inversely and independently associated with peripheral blood neutrophil count in contacts of patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB. The ability of whole blood to restrict growth of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette Guérin and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was impaired 7.3- and 3.1-fold, respectively, by neutrophil depletion. In microbiological media, human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) 1-3 killed M. tuberculosis. The neutrophil peptides cathelicidin LL-37 and lipocalin 2 restricted growth of the organism, the latter in an iron-dependent manner. Black African participants had lower neutrophil counts and lower circulating concentrations of HNP1-3 and lipocalin 2 than south Asian and white participants. Neutrophils contribute substantially to innate resistance to TB infection, an activity associated with their antimicrobial peptides. Elucidation of the regulation of neutrophil antimicrobial peptides could facilitate prevention and treatment of TB.

                Author and article information

                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Research Protocols
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                June 2019
                8 June 2019
                : 8
                : 6
                : e13045
                [1 ] Luton&Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Luton United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Michael Eisenhut michael_eisenhut@ 123456yahoo.com
                Author information
                ©Michael Eisenhut. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 08.06.2019.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.researchprotocols.org.as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 6 December 2018
                : 24 April 2019
                : 5 May 2019
                : 5 May 2019

                innate immunity,bcg,bacillus calmette guerin vaccine,mycobacterium tuberculosis infection,toll-like receptors


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