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      Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Allergies in the Anthropocene: Abundance, Interaction, and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants

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          Abstract

          Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, climate change, allergens, adjuvants and the immune system, addressing how these interactions may promote the development of allergies. We reviewed and synthesized key findings from atmospheric, climate, and biomedical research. The current state of knowledge, open questions, and future research perspectives are outlined and discussed. The Anthropocene, as the present era of globally pervasive anthropogenic influence on planet Earth and, thus, on the human environment, is characterized by a strong increase of carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and combustion- or traffic-related particulate matter in the atmosphere. These environmental factors can enhance the abundance and induce chemical modifications of allergens, increase oxidative stress in the human body, and skew the immune system toward allergic reactions. In particular, air pollutants can act as adjuvants and alter the immunogenicity of allergenic proteins, while climate change affects the atmospheric abundance and human exposure to bioaerosols and aeroallergens. To fully understand and effectively mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution and climate change on allergic diseases, several challenges remain to be resolved. Among these are the identification and quantification of immunochemical reaction pathways involving allergens and adjuvants under relevant environmental and physiological conditions.

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          Most cited references 417

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          A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

          The Lancet, 380(9859), 2224-2260
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            The development of allergic inflammation.

            Allergic disorders, such as anaphylaxis, hay fever, eczema and asthma, now afflict roughly 25% of people in the developed world. In allergic subjects, persistent or repetitive exposure to allergens, which typically are intrinsically innocuous substances common in the environment, results in chronic allergic inflammation. This in turn produces long-term changes in the structure of the affected organs and substantial abnormalities in their function. It is therefore important to understand the characteristics and consequences of acute and chronic allergic inflammation, and in particular to explore how mast cells can contribute to several features of this maladaptive pattern of immunological reactivity.
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              Alveolar macrophages: plasticity in a tissue-specific context.

              Alveolar macrophages exist in a unique microenvironment and, despite historical evidence showing that they are in close contact with the respiratory epithelium, have until recently been investigated in isolation. The microenvironment of the airway lumen has a considerable influence on many aspects of alveolar macrophage phenotype, function and turnover. As the lungs adapt to environmental challenges, so too do alveolar macrophages adapt to accommodate the ever-changing needs of the tissue. In this Review, we discuss the unique characteristics of alveolar macrophages, the mechanisms that drive their adaptation and the direct and indirect influences of epithelial cells on them. We also highlight how airway luminal macrophages function as sentinels of a healthy state and how they do not respond in a pro-inflammatory manner to antigens that do not disrupt lung structure. The unique tissue location and function of alveolar macrophages distinguish them from other macrophage populations and suggest that it is important to classify macrophages according to the site that they occupy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Environ Sci Technol
                Environ. Sci. Technol
                es
                esthag
                Environmental Science & Technology
                American Chemical Society
                0013-936X
                1520-5851
                22 March 2017
                18 April 2017
                : 51
                : 8
                : 4119-4141
                Affiliations
                []Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry , Mainz, 55128, Germany
                []Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University , Mainz, 55128, Germany
                [§ ]Department of Chemistry, University of California , Irvine, California 92697-2025, United States
                []South China University of Technology , School of Environment and Energy, Guangzhou, 510006, China
                []Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University , Mainz, 55131, Germany
                [# ]Division 1.5 Protein Analysis, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) , Berlin, 12489, Germany
                []Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg , 5020 Salzburg, Austria
                []Institute of Translational Immunology and Research Center for Immunotherapy, Institute of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University , Mainz, 55131 Germany
                []Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts 02215, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Tel: +49 6131 305 7007. E-mail: k.selzle@ 123456mpic.de .
                [* ]Tel: +49 6131 392 2417. E-mail: kampfc@ 123456uni-mainz.de .
                [* ]Tel: +49 6131 305 7001. E-mail: u.poschl@ 123456mpic.de .
                Article
                10.1021/acs.est.6b04908
                5453620
                28326768
                Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

                Categories
                Critical Review
                Custom metadata
                es6b04908
                es-2016-04908f

                General environmental science

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