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      Global thrombosis test for assessing thrombotic status and efficacy of antithrombotic diet and other conditions

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          Abstract

          Because of the high mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke, there is a great demand for finding novel methods of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these diseases. Most of the current tests measure important determinants of thrombosis such as platelet function, coagulation and fibrinolysis in isolation; therefore, a global test measuring the actual thrombotic status would be more useful in clinical conditions. We obtained considerable experience by using the global thrombosis test, which determines the actual thrombotic status by taking into account the measured platelet reactivity, coagulation and fibrinolytic activities. In animal experiments, we found significant correlation between the ex vivo global thrombosis test measurements and the in vivo thrombotic status. The published evidence for the benefit of an antithrombotic diet with regular physical exercise is also described.

          Plain language summary

          There is a great concern in the general population how to detect the risk of thrombotic events and prevent the high mortality from stroke, myocardial infarction, sudden death and cancer-associated thrombosis. Our experience on antithrombotic fruits and vegetables intake and regular exercise assessed by the global thrombosis test suggested a potentially unique way of preventing these life-threatening diseases. In addition, global thrombosis testing may offer some benefit in detecting risk of thrombotic of forthcoming thrombotic events in cancer and COVID-19 virus-infected patients.

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          Most cited references110

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          Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 Vaccination

          Background Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder. Methods We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)–heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4–heparin immunoassay. Results Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4–heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor–blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4–heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation. Conclusions Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.)
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            Confirmation of the high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19: An updated analysis

            Introduction We recently reported a high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of three Dutch hospitals. In answering questions raised regarding our study, we updated our database and repeated all analyses. Methods We re-evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and/or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital from ICU admission to death, ICU discharge or April 22nd 2020, whichever came first. Results We studied the same 184 ICU patients as reported on previously, of whom a total of 41 died (22%) and 78 were discharged alive (43%). The median follow-up duration increased from 7 to 14 days. All patients received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of the composite outcome, adjusted for competing risk of death, was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41–57%). The majority of thrombotic events were PE (65/75; 87%). In the competing risk model, chronic anticoagulation therapy at admission was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.29, 95%CI 0.091–0.92). Patients diagnosed with thrombotic complications were at higher risk of all-cause death (HR 5.4; 95%CI 2.4–12). Use of therapeutic anticoagulation was not associated with all-cause death (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.35–1.8). Conclusion In this updated analysis, we confirm the very high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
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              The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease.

              Many constituents of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk for coronary heart disease, but data on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk for coronary heart disease are sparse. To evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with risk for coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort study. The Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study. 84 251 women 34 to 59 years of age who were followed for 14 years and 42 148 men 40 to 75 years who were followed for 8 years. All were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline. The main outcome measure was incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal coronary heart disease (1127 cases in women and 1063 cases in men). Diet was assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires. After adjustment for standard cardiovascular risk factors, persons in the highest quintile of fruit and vegetable intake had a relative risk for coronary heart disease of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.93) compared with those in the lowest quintile of intake. Each 1-serving/d increase in intake of fruits or vegetables was associated with a 4% lower risk for coronary heart disease (relative risk, 0.96 [CI, 0.94 to 0.99]; P = 0.01, test for trend). Green leafy vegetables (relative risk with 1-serving/d increase, 0.77 [CI, 0.64 to 0.93]), and vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables (relative risk with 1-serving/d increase, 0.94 [CI, 0.88 to 0.99]) contributed most to the apparent protective effect of total fruit and vegetable intake. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly green leafy vegetables and vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables, appears to have a protective effect against coronary heart disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Future Sci OA
                Future Sci OA
                FSOA
                Future Science OA
                Future Science Ltd (London, UK )
                2056-5623
                31 January 2022
                March 2022
                31 January 2022
                : 8
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Osaka, 584 8540, Japan
                [2 ]Department of General Internal Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, 650 0017, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Health & Nutrition, Osaka Shoin Women’s University, Osaka, 577 8550, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Fisheries, School of Marine Science & Technology, Tokai University, Shizuoka, 424 8610, Japan
                [5 ]School of Economics & Management, University of Hyogo, Kobe, 651 2197, Japan
                [6 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, 520 2192, Japan
                [7 ]Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe, 651 2180, Japan
                [8 ]Biella, BI, I 13900, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Author for correspondence: yamamoto@ 123456nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp
                Article
                10.2144/fsoa-2021-0086
                8890116
                35251699
                f05c078c-efad-4619-9d71-708eb96cd9fc
                © 2022 Junichiro Yamamoto

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

                Page count
                Pages: 13
                Product
                Categories
                Review

                antithrombotic vegetables,cancer associated thrombosis,cardiovascular disease,covid-19,exercise,fibrinolysis,native blood,platelet aggregation,shear stress,stroke

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