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      Chlorogenic Acid Stimulates Glucose Transport in Skeletal Muscle via AMPK Activation: A Contributor to the Beneficial Effects of Coffee on Diabetes

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      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been shown to delay intestinal glucose absorption and inhibit gluconeogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the role of CGA in the regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle isolated from db/db mice and L6 skeletal muscle cells. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed on db/db mice treated with CGA and soleus muscle was isolated for 2-deoxyglucose transport study. 2DG transport was also examined in L6 myotubes with or without inhibitors such as wortmannin or compound c. AMPK was knocked down with AMPKα1/2 siRNA to study its effect on CGA-stimulated glucose transport. GLUT 4 translocation, phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, AMPK activity, and association of IRS-1 and PI3K were investigated in the presence of CGA. In db/db mice, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar was observed 10 minutes after the intraperitoneal administration of 250 mg/kg CGA and the effect persisted for another 30 minutes after the glucose challenge. Besides, CGA stimulated and enhanced both basal and insulin-mediated 2DG transports in soleus muscle. In L6 myotubes, CGA caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in glucose transport. Compound c and AMPKα1/2 siRNA abrogated the CGA-stimulated glucose transport. Consistent with these results, CGA was found to phosphorylate AMPK and ACC, consistent with the result of increased AMPK activities. CGA did not appear to enhance association of IRS-1 with p85. However, we observed activation of Akt by CGA. These parallel activations in turn increased translocation of GLUT 4 to plasma membrane. At 2 mmol/l, CGA did not cause any significant changes in viability or proliferation of L6 myotubes. Our data demonstrated for the first time that CGA stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via the activation of AMPK. It appears that CGA may contribute to the beneficial effects of coffee on Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Cellular survival: a play in three Akts.

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            AMP-activated protein kinase induces a p53-dependent metabolic checkpoint.

            Replicative cell division is an energetically demanding process that can be executed only if cells have sufficient metabolic resources to support a doubling of cell mass. Here we show that proliferating mammalian cells have a cell-cycle checkpoint that responds to glucose availability. The glucose-dependent checkpoint occurs at the G(1)/S boundary and is regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This cell-cycle arrest occurs despite continued amino acid availability and active mTOR. AMPK activation induces phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15, and this phosphorylation is required to initiate AMPK-dependent cell-cycle arrest. AMPK-induced p53 activation promotes cellular survival in response to glucose deprivation, and cells that have undergone a p53-dependent metabolic arrest can rapidly reenter the cell cycle upon glucose restoration. However, persistent activation of AMPK leads to accelerated p53-dependent cellular senescence. Thus, AMPK is a cell-intrinsic regulator of the cell cycle that coordinates cellular proliferation with carbon source availability.
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              Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase.

              The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of energy balance at both the cellular and whole-body levels. Two upstream kinases have been reported to activate AMPK in cell-free assays, i.e., the tumor suppressor LKB1 and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. However, evidence that this is physiologically relevant currently only exists for LKB1. We now report that there is a significant basal activity and phosphorylation of AMPK in LKB1-deficient cells that can be stimulated by Ca2+ ionophores, and studies using the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 and isoform-specific siRNAs show that CaMKKbeta is required for this effect. CaMKKbeta also activates AMPK much more rapidly than CaMKKalpha in cell-free assays. K(+)-induced depolarization in rat cerebrocortical slices, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without disturbing cellular adenine nucleotide levels, activates AMPK, and this is blocked by STO-609. Our results suggest a potential Ca(2+)-dependent neuroprotective pathway involving phosphorylation and activation of AMPK by CaMKKbeta.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                7 March 2012
                : 7
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
                University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: KWO AH BKHT. Performed the experiments: KWO AH. Analyzed the data: KWO AH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BKHT. Wrote the paper: KWO.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-20933
                10.1371/journal.pone.0032718
                3296733
                22412912
                Ong et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Musculoskeletal System
                Muscle
                Chemistry
                Phytochemistry
                Medicine
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Musculoskeletal System
                Muscle
                Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                Drugs and Devices
                Drug Research and Development
                Endocrinology
                Diabetic Endocrinology

                Uncategorized

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