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      Study of the snail intermediate hosts of urogenital schistosomiasis in Niakhar, region of Fatick, West central Senegal

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          Abstract

          Background

          Schistosoma haematobium is the most widespread schistosome species in Senegal and occurs in several regions of the country especially in the Sudan-Sahelian zone. The aims of the study were i) to determine the freshwater species ii) to ascertain the role of the identified snail species in the transmission of S. haematobium and iii) to study the impact of drought on the snails.

          Methods

          Snails were sampled each year in 17 sites from July to November-December 2012 and 2013. At each snail survey, snails were grouped by village, counted, identified according to shell morphology and the rates of schistosome cercarial shedding recorded. The shell height of the snails collected in July was measured and classified into four groups according to their size in order to determine those that are open to aestivation.

          Results

          B. senegalensis and B. umbilicatus were the only snails intermediate hosts collected in the Niakhar study area. B. senegalensis is found in all the 17 sampling sites while B. umbilicatus was only found in one site out of the many surveyed. The total number of B. senegalensis collected in 2012 and 2013 was 1032 and 8261 respectively. A total of 901 and 6432 B. senegalensis were tested for Schistosoma spp. infestation in 2012 and 2013 respectively. For B. umbilicatus, 58 snails were collected and tested in 2012. In 2013, 290 were collected and 281 tested. The overall rates of schistosome cercarial shedding were 0 % in 2012 and 0.12 % in 2013 for B. senegalensis and 13.79 and 4.98 % in 2012 and 2013 respectively for B. umbilicatus. For both species collected in July, size group 3 individuals (7–9.9 mm) were the most numerous, 63.6 and 57.8 % for B. senegalensis and B. umbilicatus respectively. B. umbilicatus was reported for the first time in the region of Fatick located in the old ecological zone of Sine-Saloum, is able to maintain Schistosoma spp. larvae during 7 months of drought and may transmit the disease in early July, increasing the period and the risk of transmission.

          Conclusion

          This study recommends an adaptation of snail control strategies at pond cycles and ecology of the snails in these seasonal foci. Malacological control strategies must take into account these phenomena of drought resistance and the capacity of some snails to maintain parasite during aestivation. The treatment of ponds with Bayluscide at the end of the rainy season in November and upon onset of rains in July would be more advantageous to the control of snails thereby reducing transmission of urogenital schistosomiasis in the Niakhar area.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 24

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          The global status of schistosomiasis and its control.

          Schistosomiasis is being successfully controlled in many countries but remains a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected, mostly in Africa. Few countries in this region have undertaken successful and sustainable control programmes. The construction of water schemes to meet the power and agricultural requirements for development have lead to increasing transmission, especially of Schistosoma mansoni. Increasing population and movement have contributed to increased transmission and introduction of schistosomiasis to new areas. Most endemic countries are among the least developed whose health systems face difficulties to provide basic care at the primary health level. Constraints to control include, the lack of political commitment and infrastructure for public health interventions. Another constraint is that available anti-schistosomal drugs are expensive and the cost of individual treatment is a high proportion of the per capita drug budgets. There is need for increased support for schistosomiasis control in the most severely affected countries.
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            Incorporating a Rapid-Impact Package for Neglected Tropical Diseases with Programs for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria

            Hotez et al. argue that achieving success in the global fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria may well require a concurrent attack on the neglected tropical diseases.
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              Schistosoma haematobium infection and morbidity before and after large-scale administration of praziquantel in Burkina Faso.

              In sub-Saharan Africa, 112 million people are infected with Schistosoma haematobium, with the most intense infections in children 5-15 years old. We describe a longitudinal epidemiological study that evaluates the relationship between S. haematobium infection and associated morbidity in children before and after the large-scale administration of praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for soil-transmitted helminths. At baseline, higher intensities of S. haematobium infection were observed in children with anemia and/or severe microhematuria, but there was no apparent association between the risk of undernutrition and intensity of S. haematobium infection. Significant reductions in the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection 1 year after treatment were, however, observed. Children who benefited the most from anthelmintic treatment in terms of increased hemoglobin concentrations were those who had anemia at baseline and those with highly positive microhematuria scores at baseline. This study suggests that even a single round of mass chemotherapy can have a substantial impact on S. haematobium infection and its associated morbidity in children.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                bruno.senghor@ird.fr
                otdiaw2012@gmail.com
                souleymane.doucoure@ird.fr
                mouhamadane.seye@yahoo.fr
                idrissatalla@yahoo.fr
                aldiouma.diallo@ird.fr
                cheikhti.ba@gmail.com
                cheikh.sokhna@ird.fr
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                7 August 2015
                7 August 2015
                2015
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [ ]Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR 198 (URMITE), Campus International de Hann, IRD, BP 1386, CP 18524 Dakar, Sénégal
                [ ]Département de Biologie Animale, laboratoire d’écologie et de Biologie évolutive, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, BP 5005, Dakar, Senegal
                [ ]Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles, ISRA, route des Hydrocarbures, Bel Air, BP 3120, Dakar, Senegal
                [ ]Programme national de lutte contre les bilharzioses et les géo-helminthiases, ministère de la santé et de l’action sociale, Dakar, Sénégal
                1030
                10.1186/s13071-015-1030-z
                4527339
                © Senghor et al. 2015

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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