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      Renal Complications of High-Dose Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

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          Following bone marrow transplantation, acute renal failure and proteinuria are common complications with a high mortality, particularly in patients requiring hemodialysis. Incidence, potential predisposing factors, and outcome of acute renal complications in patients with hematological malignancies receiving autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively studied in 53 patients. Eight patients developed acute renal failure. Three of them required hemodialysis. Of all patients with acute renal failure, only those requiring hemodialysis died, due to nonrenal causes. Only 1 of the 45 patients without renal failure died. Mild proteinuria of predominantly tubular origin occurred in 16 patients, in 3 with and in 13 without acute renal failure. As predisposing factors for acute renal failure were identified: renal hypoperfusion due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis or septic shock, and combined administration of nephrotoxic drugs. Especially those patients receiving high numbers of nephrotoxic drugs in combination with renal hypoperfusion were likely to develop acute renal failure. These results suggest that patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation have a low risk of developing acute renal failure and proteinuria.

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          Autologous bone marrow transplantation as compared with salvage chemotherapy in relapses of chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

          High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who have relapses. In this report we describe a prospective randomized study of such treatment. A total of 215 patients with relapses of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated between July 1987 and June 1994. All patients received two courses of conventional chemotherapy. The 109 patients who had a response to chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive four courses of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (54 patients) or radiotherapy plus intensive chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (55 patients). The overall rate of response to conventional chemotherapy was 58 percent; among patients with relapses after chemotherapy, the response rate was 64 percent, and among those with relapses during chemotherapy, the response rate was 21 percent. There were three deaths from toxic effects among the patients in the transplantation group, and none among those in the group receiving chemotherapy without transplantation. The two groups did not differ in terms of prognostic factors. The median follow-up time was 63 months. The response rate was 84 percent after bone marrow transplantation and 44 percent after chemotherapy without transplantation. At five years, the rate of event-free survival was 46 percent in the transplantation group and 12 percent in the group receiving chemotherapy without transplantation (P = 0.001), and the rate of overall survival was 53 and 32 percent, respectively (P = 0.038). As compared with conventional chemotherapy, treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation increases event-free and overall survival in patients with chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relapse.
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            Effects of saline, mannitol, and furosemide to prevent acute decreases in renal function induced by radiocontrast agents.

            Injections of radiocontrast agents are a frequent cause of acute decreases in renal function, occurring most often in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. We prospectively studied 78 patients with chronic renal insufficiency (mean [+/- SD] serum creatinine concentration, 2.1 +/- 0.6 mg per deciliter [186 +/- 53 mumol per liter]) who underwent cardiac angiography. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 0.45 percent saline alone for 12 hours before and 12 hours after angiography, saline plus mannitol, or saline plus furosemide. The mannitol and furosemide were given just before angiography. Serum creatinine was measured before and for 48 hours after angiography, and urine was collected for 24 hours after angiography. An acute radiocontrast-induced decrease in renal function was defined as an increase in the base-line serum creatinine concentration of at least 0.5 mg per deciliter (44 mumol per liter) within 48 hours after the injection of radiocontrast agents. Twenty of the 78 patients (26 percent) had an increase in the serum creatinine concentration of at least 0.5 mg per deciliter after angiography. Among the 28 patients in the saline group, 3 (11 percent) had such an increase in serum creatinine, as compared with 7 of 25 in the mannitol group (28 percent) and 10 of 25 in the furosemide group (40 percent) (P = 0.05). The mean increase in serum creatinine 48 hours after angiography was significantly greater in the furosemide group (P = 0.01) than in the saline group. In patients with chronic renal insufficiency who are undergoing cardiac angiography, hydration with 0.45 percent saline provides better protection against acute decreases in renal function induced by radiocontrast agents than does hydration with 0.45 percent saline plus mannitol or furosemide.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              February 2000
              28 January 2000
              : 84
              : 2
              : 136-141
              aMedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik und bKlinik für Knochenmarktransplantation, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Deutschland
              45561 Nephron 2000;84:136–141
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 42, Pages: 6
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