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New and Emerging Tobacco Products and the Nicotine Endgame: The Role of Robust Regulation and Comprehensive Tobacco Control and Prevention: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association

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      Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys.

      Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote cessation of tobacco use are needed to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Bloomberg Philanthropies' Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Brazilian and Indian Governments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study.

        Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable causes of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to assess the risks associated with tobacco use (both smoking and non-smoking) and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) worldwide. We did a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with 27,089 participants in 52 countries (12,461 cases, 14,637 controls). We assessed relation between risk of AMI and current or former smoking, type of tobacco, amount smoked, effect of smokeless tobacco, and exposure to SHS. We controlled for confounders such as differences in lifestyles between smokers and non-smokers. Current smoking was associated with a greater risk of non-fatal AMI (odds ratio [OR] 2.95, 95% CI 2.77-3.14, p 21 h per week). Young male current smokers had the highest population attributable risk (58.3%; 95% CI 55.0-61.6) and older women the lowest (6.2%, 4.1-9.2). Population attributable risk for exposure to SHS for more than 1 h per week in never smokers was 15.4% (12.1-19.3). Tobacco use is one of the most important causes of AMI globally, especially in men. All forms of tobacco use, including different types of smoking and chewing tobacco and inhalation of SHS, should be discouraged to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
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          Cardiovascular mortality and exposure to airborne fine particulate matter and cigarette smoke: shape of the exposure-response relationship.

          Fine particulate matter exposure from both ambient air pollution and secondhand cigarette smoke has been associated with larger risks of cardiovascular mortality than would be expected on the basis of linear extrapolations of the relative risks from active smoking. This study directly assessed the shape of the exposure-response relationship between cardiovascular mortality and fine particulates from cigarette smoke and ambient air pollution. Prospective cohort data for >1 million adults were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. Cox proportional hazards regression models that included variables for increments of cigarette smoking and variables to control for education, marital status, body mass, alcohol consumption, occupational exposures, and diet were used to describe the mortality experience of the cohort. Adjusted relative risks of mortality were plotted against estimated average daily dose of fine particulate matter from cigarette smoke along with comparison estimates for secondhand cigarette smoke and air pollution. There were substantially increased cardiovascular mortality risks at very low levels of active cigarette smoking and smaller but significant excess risks even at the much lower exposure levels associated with secondhand cigarette smoke and ambient air pollution. Relatively low levels of fine particulate exposure from either air pollution or secondhand cigarette smoke are sufficient to induce adverse biological responses increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. The exposure-response relationship between cardiovascular disease mortality and fine particulate matter is relatively steep at low levels of exposure and flattens out at higher exposures.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Circulation
            Circulation
            Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
            0009-7322
            1524-4539
            March 13 2019
            March 13 2019
            10.1161/CIR.0000000000000669
            © 2019

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