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      Women and heart disease, the underrecognized burden: sex differences, biases, and unmet clinical and research challenges

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      Clinical Science

      Portland Press Ltd.

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          Abstract

          For many years the significance of heart disease in women was vastly underappreciated, and women were significantly underrepresented in cardiovascular clinical research. We now know that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for women. Women and men share many similarities in the pathophysiology and manifestations of heart disease. However, as research advances with the continued inclusion of more women, knowledge about gender differences between the female and male heart, both on a physiological and pathophysiological basis, grows. These differences can be found in all domains of cardiovascular health and disease, including heart rhythm, heart failure, coronary disease and valvular disease. Further understanding of gender differences in the heart is crucial for advancing our ability to maintain a healthy population and identify and treat heart disease in both women and men. Specific examples within the spectrum of heart disease will be discussed in this review paper, and areas for further research will be proposed.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Clinical Science
          Clinical Science
          Portland Press Ltd.
          0143-5221
          1470-8736
          March 08 2016
          April 01 2016
          March 08 2016
          March 08 2016
          : 130
          : 8
          : 551-563
          Article
          10.1042/CS20150586
          26957643
          © 2016
          Product
          Self URI (journal page): https://microbiologysociety.org/

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