The activation of platelets, leukocytes, and vascular endothelial cells mediated by cell adhesion molecules may play a role in the mechanism of restenosis, which is still a significant complication after coronary angioplasty. We observed serial changes in the circulating soluble forms of adhesion molecules in 25 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angioplasty for a single lesion of the left anterior descending artery. Serum levels of sICAM-1 (p < 0.05) and sP-selectin (p < 0.05) were significantly increased immediately after angioplasty in the coronary sinus blood samples. These increases continued during the 48-hour observation period, and the maximum increase was seen 48 h after angioplasty for sICAM-1 (p < 0.01) and 24 h after angioplasty for sP-selectin (p < 0.01). The level of sL-selectin increased 24 h (p < 0.01) and 48 h (p < 0.001) after angioplasty. These changes were not observed in the peripheral blood samples. The sE-selectin level did not change after angioplasty. A multiple regression analysis showed that the late loss index obtained from quantitative angiographic (QCA) analysis was correlated with the changes in sICAM-1 (r = 0.31, p < 0.05), sL-selectin (r = 0.28, p < 0.05), and sP-selectin (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) 48 h after angioplasty in the coronary sinus blood samples, but was not correlated with procedural variables, other QCA variables, or the change in the sL-selectin level. The measurements of these adhesion molecule levels may help to evaluate traumatic vessel wall injury and inflammation at the intervention site after coronary angioplasty.