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      Orchidectomy Increases β-Adrenoceptor Activation-Mediated Neuronal Nitric Oxide and Noradrenaline Release in Rat Mesenteric Artery

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          Background/Aims: A previous study has demonstrated that endogenous male sex hormones do not alter neuronal nitric oxide (NO) release in rat mesenteric artery. However, the regulatory role of endogenous male sex hormones on noradrenaline (NA) release in rat mesenteric artery is not known. The present study was designed to analyze whether endogenous male sex hormones influence the NA release induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), as well as the possible modification in NA and neuronal NO release by presynaptic β-adrenoceptor activation. Methods: For this purpose, mesenteric arteries from control and orchidectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Basal and EFS-induced neuronal NO and NA release, as well as the contractile effect induced by EFS, was measured. Results: Basal and EFS-induced neuronal NO and NA release were similar in arteries from control and orchidectomized rats. The β-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol did not modify EFS-induced neuronal NO and NA release in arteries from control rats. In contrast, in arteries from orchidectomized animals, clenbuterol increased both neuronal NO and NA release; this increase was prevented by incubation with the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. However, the contractile response elicited by EFS was not modified by clenbuterol in either group of rats. Conclusions: These results show that orchidectomy does not alter the EFS-induced NA release. What is more, activation of presynaptic β-adrenoceptors does not modify EFS-induced NA and neuronal NO release in arteries from control rats although it increases the release of both neurotransmitters in arteries from orchidectomized rats. Despite these modifications, the EFS-induced contractile response is preserved in arteries from orchidectomized rats.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Androgens and cardiovascular disease.

          Globally, cardiovascular disease will continue causing most human deaths for the foreseeable future. The consistent gender gap in life span of approximately 5.6 yr in all advanced economies must derive from gender differences in age-specific cardiovascular death rates, which rise steeply in parallel for both genders but 5-10 yr earlier in men. The lack of inflection point at modal age of menopause, contrasting with unequivocally estrogen-dependent biological markers like breast cancer or bone density, makes estrogen protection of premenopausal women an unlikely explanation. Limited human data suggest that testosterone exposure does not shorten life span in either gender, and oral estrogen treatment increases risk of cardiovascular death in men as it does in women. Alternatively, androgen exposure in early life (perinatal androgen imprinting) may predispose males to earlier onset of atherosclerosis. Following the recent reevaluation of the estrogen-protection orthodoxy, empirical research has flourished into the role of androgens in the progression of cardiovascular disease, highlighting the need to better understand androgen receptor (AR) coregulators, nongenomic androgen effects, tissue-specific metabolic activation of androgens, and androgen sensitivity. Novel therapeutic targets may arise from understanding how androgens enhance early plaque formation and cause vasodilatation via nongenomic androgen effects on vascular smooth muscle, and how tissue-specific variations in androgen effects are modulated by AR coregulators as well as metabolic activation of testosterone to amplify (via 5alpha-reductase to form dihydrotestosterone acting on AR) or diversify (via aromatization to estradiol acting upon estrogen receptor alpha/beta) the biological effects of testosterone on the vasculature. Observational studies show that blood testosterone concentrations are consistently lower among men with cardiovascular disease, suggesting a possible preventive role for testosterone therapy, which requires critical evaluation by further prospective studies. Short-term interventional studies show that testosterone produces a modest but consistent improvement in cardiac ischemia over placebo, comparable to the effects of existing antianginal drugs. By contrast, testosterone therapy has no beneficial effects in peripheral arterial disease but has not been evaluated in cerebrovascular disease. Erectile dysfunction is most frequently caused by pelvic arterial insufficiency due to atherosclerosis, and its sentinel relationship to generalized atherosclerosis is insufficiently appreciated. The commonality of risk factor patterns and mechanisms (including endothelial dysfunction) suggests that the efficacy of antiatherogenic therapy is an important challenge with the potential to enhance men's motivation for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
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            Calcitonin gene-related peptide acts as a novel vasodilator neurotransmitter in mesenteric resistance vessels of the rat.

            Systemic blood pressure is controlled by changes in the resistance of the peripheral vascular bed for example in the mesenteric blood vessels. The tone of peripheral blood vessels is primarily maintained by sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves. Although vasodilator innervation has been identified in certain isolated elastic arteries, it is not known whether vasodilator nerves contribute to the regulation of the peripheral resistance vessels. We present pharmacological evidence for the existence of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) vasodilator nerves in the mesenteric resistance vessel of the rat and that the resistance is controlled by not only sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves but also NANC vasodilator nerves. We also show that the neurogenic vasodilation was selectively abolished by depleting endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator neuropeptide, from perivascular nerves. This indicates that CGRP is a novel vasodilator neurotransmitter and may play a role in control of the total peripheral resistance of systemic circulation through a local reflex mechanism.
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              Evidence for more than one type of post-junctional α-Adrenoceptor

               J.C. McGrath (1982)

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2007
                30 March 2007
                : 84
                : 6
                : 378-385
                Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
                98820 Neuroendocrinology 2006;84:378–385
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 41, Pages: 8
                GnRH, Gonadotropins, Gonadal Steroids and Reproduction


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