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      Transition from normal to cancerous cell by precancerous niche (PCN) induced chronic cell-matrix stress

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          Abstract

          The attempt to restore homeostasis, once disrupted, such that complex signaling, crosstalk between ubiquitous proteins, and a diverse range of pathways gone awry is near impossible, especially in the presence of an ongoing pathogenic stimuli with incessant inflammation. This persistent inflammation, when unresolved, induces fibrosis with consequent remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which leads to the formation of the precancerous niche (PCN), the tipping point in the transition of normal to cancerous cells. Thus, the sustained disruption of homeostasis when confronted with limited adaptation capabilities either of cells or of the surrounding matrix and faced with chronic stress in the tissue microenvironment results in an escape strategy which, if unsuccessful, causes cells, tissue, or the organism to become unable to recover over the long term. All conditions necessary for cell–cell transition such as deregulation of cell–cell complexes, decrease in the stability of adherens junctions, together with the apical-basal polarity, and the loss of the cytoskeletal architecture occurs as a cascade of events inducing inappropriate and diverse signaling pathways and crosstalk. In biology, the transition of one cell type to another and the transition from one cell function to another is incompletely understood mechanistically, but within the context of embryogenesis and morphogenesis is acknowledged as a physiologically routine event. The constant stress that can result in the development of the PCN leads to a chronic stress escape strategy (CSES) which, if unsuccessful, eventually triggers a normal cell- to-cancer cell- transition (NCCCT).

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          Most cited references 402

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          Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in development and disease.

          The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays crucial roles in the formation of the body plan and in the differentiation of multiple tissues and organs. EMT also contributes to tissue repair, but it can adversely cause organ fibrosis and promote carcinoma progression through a variety of mechanisms. EMT endows cells with migratory and invasive properties, induces stem cell properties, prevents apoptosis and senescence, and contributes to immunosuppression. Thus, the mesenchymal state is associated with the capacity of cells to migrate to distant organs and maintain stemness, allowing their subsequent differentiation into multiple cell types during development and the initiation of metastasis.
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            The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells.

            The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key developmental program that is often activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. We here report that the induction of an EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLEs) results in the acquisition of mesenchymal traits and in the expression of stem-cell markers. Furthermore, we show that those cells have an increased ability to form mammospheres, a property associated with mammary epithelial stem cells. Independent of this, stem cell-like cells isolated from HMLE cultures form mammospheres and express markers similar to those of HMLEs that have undergone an EMT. Moreover, stem-like cells isolated either from mouse or human mammary glands or mammary carcinomas express EMT markers. Finally, transformed human mammary epithelial cells that have undergone an EMT form mammospheres, soft agar colonies, and tumors more efficiently. These findings illustrate a direct link between the EMT and the gain of epithelial stem cell properties.
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              Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics

              The term apoptosis is proposed for a hitherto little recognized mechanism of controlled cell deletion, which appears to play a complementary but opposite role to mitosis in the regulation of animal cell populations. Its morphological features suggest that it is an active, inherently programmed phenomenon, and it has been shown that it can be initiated or inhibited by a variety of environmental stimuli, both physiological and pathological. The structural changes take place in two discrete stages. The first comprises nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation and breaking up of the cell into a number of membrane-bound, ultrastructurally well-preserved fragments. In the second stage these apoptotic bodies are shed from epithelial-lined surfaces or are taken up by other cells, where they undergo a series of changes resembling in vitro autolysis within phagosomes, and are rapidly degraded by lysosomal enzymes derived from the ingesting cells. Apoptosis seems to be involved in cell turnover in many healthy adult tissues and is responsible for focal elimination of cells during normal embryonic development. It occurs spontaneously in untreated malignant neoplasms, and participates in at least some types of therapeutically induced tumour regression. It is implicated in both physiological involution and atrophy of various tissues and organs. It can also be triggered by noxious agents, both in the embryo and adult animal. Images Fig. 8-10 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 11-14 Fig. 15-18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20-22 Fig. 23 and 24
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Theodor-Billroth-Akademie® , , Germany, USA,
                [2 ] INCORE, International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor-Billroth-Academy® , , Germany, USA,
                [3 ] Department of Surgery, Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, , Cottbus, Germany,
                [4 ] Risk-Based Decisions Inc., , Sacramento, CA, USA,
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: b-bruecher@ 123456gmx.de
                Journal
                fopen
                https://www.4open-sciences.org
                4open
                4open
                EDP Sciences
                2557-0250
                16 May 2019
                16 May 2019
                2019
                : 2
                : ( publisher-idID: fopen/2019/01 )
                10.1051/fopen/2018996 fopen180010
                © B.L.D.M. Brücher & I.S. Jamall, Published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Counts
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 403, Pages: 31
                Product
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.4open-sciences.org/
                Categories
                Life Sciences - Medicine
                Disruption of homeostasis-induced signaling and crosstalk in the carcinogenesis paradigm “Epistemology of the origin of cancer”
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                4open 2019, 2, 14
                2019
                2019
                2019

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